Bacterial Vesicles in Marine Ecosystems

@article{Biller2014BacterialVI,
  title={Bacterial Vesicles in Marine Ecosystems},
  author={Steven J. Biller and Florence Schubotz and Sara E. Roggensack and Anne W. Thompson and Roger Everett Summons and Sallie W. Chisholm},
  journal={Science},
  year={2014},
  volume={343},
  pages={183 - 186}
}
Carbon Budding in the Ocean Bacterial vesicles are gaining increasing attention for their roles in pathogenesis, but the abundance of these structures and their ecological roles in nonpathogenic contexts have received little notice. Biller et al. (p. 183; see the Perspective by Scanlan) provide evidence that membrane vesicles ∼100 nm in diameter are released by marine cyanobacteria and are a major feature of marine ecosystems. Studies of cultures of Prochlorococcus—the most abundant… 

Environmental and taxonomic drivers of bacterial extracellular vesicle production in marine ecosystems

TLDR
Using quantitative analysis of marine microbial cultures, the data indicate that different marine taxa release vesicles at rates varying across an order of magnitude, and that vesicle production can change dynamically as a function of environmental conditions.

Bacterial Vesicles in the Ocean

  • D. Scanlan
  • Environmental Science, Biology
    Science
  • 2014
TLDR
A further striking feature of Prochlorococcus is identified: the production of extracellular vesicles that may play a role in carbon cycling, gene transfer, and viral defense.

Prochlorococcus extracellular vesicles: molecular composition and adsorption to diverse microbes

TLDR
It is demonstrated that vesicles from Prochlorococcus and other bacteria associate with diverse microbes including the most abundant marine bacterium, Pelagibacter, which indicates that a portion of ‘dissolved’ compounds in the oceans are instead packaged within locally structured, particulate vesicle.

Membrane vesicles in natural environments: a major challenge in viral ecology

TLDR
It is surprising that Biller et al. (2014) observed only negligible number of apparent tailed phages in their vesicle-rich ocean samples even though the methods they used to isolate MVs were similar to those traditionally employed for the isolation of viral particles, suggesting that MVs could outnumber true viral particles in some marine environments.

Ecological significance of extracellular vesicles in modulating host-virus interactions during algal blooms

TLDR
It is revealed that exposure of the natural assemblage to E. huxleyi-derived vesicles modulates not only host-virus dynamics, but also other components of the microbial food webs, thus emphasizing the importance of extracellular vesicle to microbial interactions in the marine environment.

Communication via extracellular vesicles enhances viral infection of a cosmopolitan alga

TLDR
It is proposed that EVs are exploited by viruses to sustain efficient infectivity and propagation across E. huxleyi blooms as this mode of cell–cell communication may influence the fate of the blooms and, consequently, the composition and flow of nutrients in marine microbial food webs.

Phototrophic Microorganisms: The Basis of the Marine Food Web

TLDR
The considerable amount of omics information recently becoming available on both isolates and natural populations of marine oxyphototrophs provide a solid basis for investigating their molecular ecology, their contribution to biogeochemical cycles, as well as their possible utilization in biotechnology, data mining, or biomimetics.

Cyanophage-encoded lipid desaturases: oceanic distribution, diversity and function

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It is suggested that cyanophages are capable of fiddling with the infected host’s membranes, possibly leading to increased photoprotection and potentially enhancing viral-encoded photosynthetic proteins, resulting in a new viral metabolic network.

Extracellular Vesicles: A Novel Messenger of Unicellular Microalgae Communication?

TLDR
It is demonstrated that EVs are widely present in microalgae and have surprisingly rich contents of miRNAs and proteins, which suggest that EVs may play a critically important role in information exchange between microalgal cells and, in turn, adaptation to changing aquatic environments.
...

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