Bacterial Respiration of Arsenate and Its Significance in the Environment

@inproceedings{Oremland2002BacterialRO,
  title={Bacterial Respiration of Arsenate and Its Significance in the Environment},
  author={Ronald S. Oremland and Dianne K. Newman and Brian W. Kail and John F. Stolz},
  year={2002}
}
Although arsenic is a trace element in terms of its natural abundance, it nonetheless has a common presence within the earth's crust. Because it is classified as a group VB element in the periodic table, it shares many chemical and biochemical properties in common with its neighbors phosphorus and nitrogen. Indeed, in the case of this element's most oxidized (+5) oxidation state, arsenate [HAsO_4^(2-) or As (V)], its toxicity is based on its action as an analog of phosphate. Hence… 
Microbial transformation of elements: the case of arsenic and selenium
  • J. Stolz, P. Basu, R. Oremland
  • Biology
    International microbiology : the official journal of the Spanish Society for Microbiology
  • 2002
TLDR
The occurrence of multiple mechanisms involving different enzymes for arsenic and selenium transformation indicates several different evolutionary pathways and underscores the environmental significance and selective impact in microbial evolution of these two elements.
1 BREATHING ARSENATE : MICROBES , MINERALS , MONO LAKE , AND MAYBE
TLDR
Bacterial reduction of arsenate in Mono Lake's anoxic waters was experimentally demonstrated to be responsible for the observed shift from arsenate to arsenite as the dominant species in the environment, influencing the speciation, mobility, and toxicity of arsenic in the environments.
Did nature also choose arsenic?
TLDR
It is hypothesize that ancient biochemical systems, analogous to but distinct from those known today, could have utilized arsenate in the equivalent biological role as phosphate and may have supported a ‘shadow biosphere’ at the time of the origin and early evolution of life on Earth or on other planets.
Did nature also choose arsenic
TLDR
It is hypothesized that ancient biochemical systems, analogous to but distinct from those known today, could have utilized arsenate in the equivalent biological role as phosphate and may have supported a ‘shadow biosphere’ at the time of the origin and early evolution of life on Earth or on other planets.
The microbial arsenic cycle in Mono Lake, California.
Anaerobic Oxidation of Arsenite in Mono Lake Water and by a Facultative, Arsenite-Oxidizing Chemoautotroph, Strain MLHE-1
TLDR
Strain MLHE-1 is a facultative chemoautotroph, able to grow with inorganic electron donors and nitrate as its electron acceptor, but heterotrophic growth on acetate was also observed under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions.
Arsenic chemistry in soils and sediments
Novel autotrophic arsenite-oxidizing bacteria isolated from soil and sediments.
TLDR
Three new organisms, designated as strains OL-1, S-1 and CL-3, were isolated and found to oxidize 10 mM arsenite to arsenate under aerobic conditions using CO2-bicarbonate (CO2/HCO3-) as a carbon source, supporting the autotrophic nature of the organisms.
Redox Transformations of Arsenic Oxyanions in Periphyton Communities
TLDR
The presence of a bacterial population within the periphyton communities that is capable of two key arsenic redox transformations that were previously studied in As-contaminated environments is demonstrated, which suggests that these processes are widely distributed in nature.
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