Bacterial Contamination of Paper Currency

  title={Bacterial Contamination of Paper Currency},
  author={Theodore W Pope and Peter T Ender and William K. Woelk and Michael A Koroscil and Thomas M Koroscil},
  journal={Southern Medical Journal},
One-dollar bills were collected from the general community in western Ohio to survey for bacterial contamination. Pathogenic or potentially pathogenic organisms were isolated from 94% of the bills. These results suggest a high rate of bacterial contamination of one-dollar bills. 

Assessment of Microbial Contamination of Paper Currency Notes in Circulation

Money is not usually suitable for the survival of microorganisms, except for some that are resistant to external conditions and non-resistant forms of spores, and thus the chance of transmission during handling of money is low.

A study of Bacterial Contamination of Ghanaian Currency Notes in Circulation

The nature, type and level of contamination of the Ghanaian currency in circulation is introduced and bacteria isolates obtained were obtained from the 100 samples made up of 13 different bacteria species.

Isolation and identification of pathogenic bacteria and fungi from Indian Currency

  • N. Sharma
  • Economics
    SALT Journal of Scientific Research in Healthcare
  • 2021
ABSTRACT   Microbial contamination plays a massive role in spreading diseases globally. Bacterial contamination of gram- positive, spore-forming bacteria, gram-negative rods, and fungus was tested on

Investigation of bacterial contamination in Iraqi paper currency

The results had shown the most predominant bacteria was Bacillus sp.

Assessment of bacterial contamination of paper currency notes in Bangladesh

Most of the currency notes were contaminated with a huge range of bacteria including the antibiotic-resistant ones which might pose a severe public health risk, the present study revealed.

A preliminary bacterial study of Egyptian paper money

Investigation of the extent of contamination of some of the most used paper denominations of the Egyptian currency found that over 65% of these bills had a bacterial count above 5.0 cm2.

Evaluation of Micro-Pathogens Associated with Nigerian Currency (Naira Notes)

Evaluation of micro-pathogens associated with the Nigerian Currency (Naira note) was examined using the standard microbiological techniques. The bacterial load of the Naira notes ranged from

Bacterial Contamination of Paper Banknotes in Circulation; a Case Study in the Jenin District, Palestine

It is demonstrated that local banknotes could be a potential source of contamination by bacterial pathogens.

Contamination of Nigerian Currency Notes by Escherichia coli in Nasarawa State University, Keffi, Nigeria

It can be concluded that Nigerian currency (Naira) notes circulating in Nasarawa State University, Keffi carry high burden of E. coli and can serve as vehicle for transmission of this organism.

Bacterial Contamination of Iranian Paper Currency

The findings demonstrate that Iranian currency notes represent a significant vehicle for human pathogens, according to total bacterial count and identification of pathogenic bacteria.



Coryneform bacteria in infectious diseases: clinical and laboratory aspects

An update on clinical presentations, microbiological features, and pathogenic mechanisms of infections with nondiphtheria Corynebacterium species and other pleomorphic gram-positive rods is provided.

Serious Infections Caused by Bacillus Species

It is indicated that, in most cases, isolated Bacillus bacteremia is not a particularly serious disease, and under most circumstances, empiric antibiotic therapy designed specifically for treatment of Bacillus is probably not necessary.

Achromobacter xylosoxidans bacteremia: report of four cases and review of the literature.

Susceptibility studies showed that all strains wereresistant to aminoglycosides, most were resistant to quinolones, and all were susceptible to broad-spectrum penicillins, imipenem, ceftazidime, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole.


The severity of acinetobacter pneumonia is reflected in the high mortality rate (44% overall, with a 36% mortality rate due primarily to infection), and tracheobronchitis due to A. calcoaceticus was less severe than pneumonia since no patients died primarily as a result of the infection.

Trends in infectious diseases mortality in the United States.

Evaluated data show that infectious diseases mortality in the United States has been increasing in recent years, despite historical predictions that infectious disease mortality would wane.

Escherichia vulneris as a cause of intravenous catheter-related bacteremia.

  • A. SpauldingA. Rothman
  • Medicine
    Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
  • 1996

Dirty money.

Pseudomonas and Burkholderia. Manual of Clinical Microbiology

  • American Society for Microbiology,
  • 1995

Bureau of Engraving and Printing. Facts and trivia