Bacteria and human autoimmunity: the case of primary biliary cirrhosis

@article{Selmi2004BacteriaAH,
  title={Bacteria and human autoimmunity: the case of primary biliary cirrhosis},
  author={Carlo Selmi and Merrill Eric Gershwin},
  journal={Current Opinion in Rheumatology},
  year={2004},
  volume={16},
  pages={406-410}
}
Purpose of reviewPrimary biliary cirrhosis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the intrahepatic bile ducts that eventually leads to liver cirrhosis and organ failure, in which several observations suggest an autoimmune origin. Similarly to other autoimmune diseases, microbial mediated molecular mimicry is the most widely studied trigger that may break immunologic tolerance in primary biliary cirrhosis. Recent findingsThe hypothesis of a bacterial role in the cause of primary biliary cirrhosis… 
Update on primary biliary cirrhosis.
  • P. Invernizzi, C. Selmi, M. Gershwin
  • Medicine
    Digestive and liver disease : official journal of the Italian Society of Gastroenterology and the Italian Association for the Study of the Liver
  • 2010
TLDR
The most recent data on the aetiopathogenesis of primary biliary cirrhosis are critically summarized, the latest theories and developments are discussed, and directions for future research are suggested.
Infectious Agents in the Pathogenesis of Primary Biliary Cirrhosis
TLDR
This review revisits all reports suggesting that infectious agents might be associated with the autoimmune pathogenesis of primary biliary cirrhosis and retrieves the immune molecular mimicry mechanisms that are likely involved in the autoimmune process in PBC.
Experimental evidence on the immunopathogenesis of primary biliary cirrhosis
Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is a chronic cholestatic liver disease for which an autoimmune pathogenesis is supported by clinical and experimental data, including the presence of autoantibodies
Primary biliary cirrhosis: does X mark the spot?
TLDR
It is suggested that the enhanced monosomy X in peripheral white blood cells, and particularly in lymphocytes, of affected women might play a role in the induction of PBC, and the implications of these findings and their immunological implications are discussed.
The Chemical Pathway to Primary Biliary Cirrhosis
TLDR
The available evidence in this intriguing and rapidly growing field of research is reviewed to critically discuss its potential implications and specific xenobiotics are hypothesized to substitute lipoic acid residues on PBC-specific autoepitopes thus triggering autoimmunity.
Primary Biliary Cirrhosis: Solving the Enigma
TLDR
In this review, available data and current theories regarding the immunomediated pathogenesis of PBC will be described and molecular mimicry by either infectious agents or xenobiotics has been proposed as a means of breaking tolerance in genetically predisposed individuals.
What Is New in Primary Biliary Cirrhosis?
TLDR
This review discusses the most recent findings in the epidemiology, natural history and approaches used for the accurate diagnosis of primary biliary cirrhosis and critically review emerging data reporting on the role of genetics such as those of genome-wide association studies.
ETIOLOGY OF PRIMARY BILIARY CIRR- HOSIS
TLDR
In this review, authors give their own and literary data about mechanisms of development of intrahepatic cholestasis and possible ways of its correction.
Environmental Agents Involved in the Cause of Primary Biliary Cirrhosis
TLDR
Several risk factors have been suggested to be associated with PBC, including exposure to infectious agents and chemical xenobiotics, and a review will attempt to place such factors in perspective.
Late-Onset Autoimmunity: The Paradigm of Primary Biliary Cirrhosis – A Mini-Review
TLDR
The epidemiology of primary biliary cirrhosis is placed in the context of its clinical features and treatment as well as the future directions to further understand the immunobiology of this disease are emphasized.
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