Bacteria and archaea on Earth and their abundance in biofilms

  title={Bacteria and archaea on Earth and their abundance in biofilms},
  author={Hans-Curt Flemming and Stefan Wuertz},
  journal={Nature Reviews Microbiology},
Biofilms are a form of collective life with emergent properties that confer many advantages on their inhabitants, and they represent a much higher level of organization than single cells do. However, to date, no global analysis on biofilm abundance exists. We offer a critical discussion of the definition of biofilms and compile current estimates of global cell numbers in major microbial habitats, mindful of the associated uncertainty. Most bacteria and archaea on Earth (1.2 × 1030 cells) exist… 

Microbial Diversity and Function in Shallow Subsurface Sediment and Oceanic Lithosphere of the Atlantis Massif

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Characterisation of microbial biofilms from tunnel drainage water

Microorganisms mainly from the domain of bacteria dominate life in the terrestrial subsurface up to a depth of several kilometers. Microbial life in that habitat is dependent on the availability of

Mineral‐hosted biofilm communities in the continental deep subsurface, Deep Mine Microbial Observatory, SD, USA

It is suggested that host rock mineralogy is an important ecological driver in deep continental biospheres because it can significantly enhance biofilm cell densities and promote selective colonization by taxa putatively capable of extracellular electron transfer.

A global perspective on microbial diversity in the terrestrial deep subsurface

The diversity of bacterial communities in deep subsurface groundwater is shown to be controlled by aquifer lithology globally, by using 16S rRNA gene datasets collected across five countries on two continents and from fifteen rock types over the past decade.

Ocean Aerobiology

This review will show that marine biogenic aerosol plays an impactful, but poorly constrained, role in marine ecosystems, biogeochemical processes, and the Earth’s climate system.

The (Un)Natural History of the “Plastisphere,” A New Marine Ecosystem

The presence of a microbial biofilm on marine plastic was described in the pages of Science Magazine over 45 years ago in one of the very first publications reporting plastic in the ocean (Carpenter

Rock-Hosted Subsurface Biofilms: Mineral Selectivity Drives Hotspots for Intraterrestrial Life

Through hotspot analysis and spatial modeling approaches, it is found that mineral distributions, particularly those putatively metabolized by microbes, indeed drive biofilm distribution at DeMMO, and that bioleaching of pyrite may be a volumetrically important process influencing fluid geochemistry at this site when considered at the kilometer scale.

Why are nematodes so successful extremophiles?

  • A. Sapir
  • Environmental Science
    Communicative & integrative biology
  • 2021
It is proposed that a unique combination of several characteristics of nematodes may explain, additively or synergistically, their successful adaptation to extreme habitats.

We Are One: Multispecies Metabolism of a Biofilm Consortium and Their Treatment Strategies

The interspecies communications, including their metabolic cross-talking, in multispecies biofilm are reviewed, to signify the importance of such interactions on the initial formation and subsequent growth of these biofilms.

Rock Surface Fungi in Deep Continental Biosphere—Exploration of Microbial Community Formation with Subsurface In Situ Biofilm Trap

The first observations of active fungal colonization of mica schist in the deep continental biosphere and the ability of deep subsurface fungi to attach to rock surfaces under in situ conditions in groundwater are reported.



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It is reported that the microbial abundance in the top 50 cm of deep-sea sediments of the world oceans is on the order of 1.5 ± 0.4 Pg C, and the hypothesis that the role of Archaea and viruses could be more relevant in the deepest part of the ocean floor is supported.

Archaeal biofilms: widespread and complex.

The present review summarizes and discusses the present investigations of biofilm-forming archaeal species, their diverse biofilm architectures in monospecies or mixed communities, the identified EPSs (extracellular polymeric substances), Archaeal structures mediating surface adhesion or cell-cell connections, and the response to physical and chemical stressors implying thatArchaeal biofilm formation is an adaptive reaction to changing environmental conditions.

Microbial Ecology of the Dark Ocean above, at, and below the Seafloor

This review focuses on the current understanding of microbiology in the dark ocean, outlining salient features of various habitats and discussing known and still unexplored types of microbial metabolism and their consequences in global biogeochemical cycling.

Microbial community assembly in marine sediments

Marine sediments are densely populated by diverse communities of archaea and bacteria, with intact cells detected kilometers below the seafloor. Analyses of microbial diversity in these unique

SAR11 clade dominates ocean surface bacterioplankton communities

Quantitative measurements of the cellular abundance of the SAR11 clade in northwestern Sargasso Sea waters to 3,000 m and in Oregon coastal surface waters support the conclusion that this microbial group is among the most successful organisms on Earth.

The biomass and biodiversity of the continental subsurface

Despite accounting for a significant portion of the Earth’s prokaryotic biomass, controls on the abundance and biodiversity of microorganisms residing in the continental subsurface are poorly

Prokaryotic cells of the deep sub-seafloor biosphere identified as living bacteria

It is shown that a large fraction of the sub-seafloor prokaryotes is alive, even in very old (16 million yr) and deep (> 400 m) sediments.

Archaeal biofilm formation

The different stages of archaeal biofilm development are explored and similarities and differences between archaea and bacteria on a molecular level are highlighted and the role of archaea in industry and their use in different industrial processes are considered.

Microbial life on a sand grain: from bulk sediment to single grains

Each sand grain harbors a highly diverse bacterial community as shown by several thousand species-level operational taxonomic units (OTU)0.97, and a core community accounting for >50% of all cells was present on each sand grain.

Heterotrophic Archaea Contribute to Carbon Cycling in Low-pH, Suboxic Biofilm Communities

A transition from Bacteria- to Archaea-dominated communities in microbial biofilms sampled from the Richmond Mine acid mine drainage system is document and dominance of acidophilic archaea in degrading bioFilms is indicated and suggested that they play roles in anaerobic nutrient cycling at low pH.