Background and Mass Extinctions: The Alternation of Macroevolutionary Regimes

  title={Background and Mass Extinctions: The Alternation of Macroevolutionary Regimes},
  author={David Jablonski},
  pages={129 - 133}
Comparison of evolutionary patterns among Late Cretaceous marine bivalves and gastropods during times of normal, background levels of extinction and during the end-Cretaceous mass extinction indicates that mass extinctions are neither an intensification of background patterns nor an entirely random culling of the biota. During background times, traits such as planktotrophic larval development, broad geographic range of constituent species, and high species richness enhanced survivorship of… Expand
The biology of mass extinction: a palaeontological view.
  • D. Jablonski
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences
  • 1989
Taxa and adaptations can be lost not because they were poorly adapted by the standards of the background processes that constitute the bulk of geological time, but because they lacked--or were not linked to--the organismic, species-level or clade-level traits favoured under mass-extinction conditions. Expand
Mass extinctions and macroevolution
The detection of general survivorship rules—including the disappearance of many patterns evident during background times—demonstrates that studies of mass extinctions and recovery can contribute substantially to evolutionary theory, and many intriguing issues remain. Expand
The importance of crisis progenitors in recovery from mass extinction
Abstract Progenitor taxa are defined as species or lineages which arise, commonly through punctuated or macroevolutionary processes, during the main phases of a mass extinction interval, and whichExpand
Life in the Aftermath of Mass Extinctions
  • P. Hull
  • Medicine, Biology
  • Current Biology
  • 2015
The aftermaths of mass extinctions might contribute to the evolutionary importance of such events, and a speed limit might exist for the pace of global biotic change after massive disturbance - a limit set by geosphere-biosphere interactions. Expand
Models for biotic survival following mass extinction
Abstract Mass extinction intervals are characterized by three dynamic processes: extinction, survival, and recovery. It has been assumed that the taxa surviving a mass extinction are composedExpand
Macroevolutionary implications of mass extinction — evidence from an Upper Cambrian stage boundary
The results affirm the importance of a hierarchical approach to the interpretation of macroevolutionary patterns and provide some support to the suggestion that sorting processes operating during mass extinctions differ from those of background times. Expand
Evolutionary Consequences of Mass Extinctions
By removing or reducing dominant groups, mass extinctions provide opportunities for diversification of taxa that had been minor constituents of the pre-extinction biota, channeling evolution in directions not predictable from situations established during background times. Expand
Background extinction and mass extinction of the brachiopods from chalk of Northwest Europe
The white monotonous chalk from the Upper Cretaceouslowermost Tertiary ofNorthwest Europe spans at least 24 million years and contains a rich, well-preserved fauna of minute brachiopods. Based onExpand
Extinction Selectivity and Ecology of Neogene Caribbean Reef Corals
-We analyze a new compilation of Neogene to Recent (22-0 Ma) Caribbean coral occurrences to determine how ecological and life history traits at the population level affect long-term evolutionaryExpand
Evolutionary models in the Early Triassic marine realm
Abstract The relative influences of extrinsic compared to intrinsic drivers of evolutionary change have long been theorized and debated in the fossil record. Ecological recoveries from massExpand


Influence of larval dispersal and geographic distribution on species longevity in neogastropods
In some neogastropods dispersal and geographic distribution played important roles in species longevities, and planktic volutids tend to be widespread, planktic fasciolariids and mitrids were often restricted in distribution and therefore probably stenotopic. Expand
Evolutionary Patterns in the Paleozoic Bivalvia: Documentation and Some Theoretical Considerations
The fossil record of the Paleozoic Bivalvia can be described in terms of directional and repetitive evolutionary trends. The directional aspect is reflected in long-term generic diversification, andExpand
Dinosaur Success in the Triassic: A Noncompetitive Ecological Model
  • M. Benton
  • Biology
  • The Quarterly Review of Biology
  • 1983
There is no evidence that either thecodontians or dinosaur demonstrated their superiority over mammal-like reptiles in massive competitive take-overs in the latest Triassic, and explanations of dinosaur success based on the competitive superiority of their thermoregulation or locomotory capability are unnecessary. Expand
Biogeographic Consequences of Eurytopy and Stenotopy Among Marine Bivalves and Their Evolutionary Significance
Because of differences in geographic distribution, species able to live as shallow as 1 meter should be less likely to speciate or go extinct than species restricted to deeper waters, and low-diversity species associations should also be evolutionarily more stable than high-Diversity (>1 meter) associations. Expand
Size of the Permo-Triassic Bottleneck and Its Evolutionary Implications
  • D. Raup
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Science
  • 1979
Rarefaction analysis of extinctions in the Late Permian indicates that as many as 96 percent of all marine species may have died out, thus forcing the marine biosphere to pass through a smallExpand
Phenomenological Levels and Evolutionary Rates
It is fair to say that the synthesis sees evolution as operating on one level only: evolution boils down to generation by generation change in gene content and frequency-and all evolutionary patterns are not only consistent with this process, but are also essentially reducible to it. Expand
The Enigma of the Extinction of the Dinosaurs
One of the more interesting contributions of paleontology to general knowledge is evidence that giant reptiles were once the dominant life forms on our planet. During the past two centuries some 5000Expand
Reefs are not so different—They follow the evolutionary pattern of level-bottom communities
There is a pervasive attitude that reels were isolated from the mainstream of evolution and that their history had quite a different pattern from the level-bottom marine biota. However, threeExpand
  • R. R. Strathmann
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Evolution; international journal of organic evolution
  • 1978
A survey of larvae in spiralian phyla indicates that for several reasons the spiralians have been more flexible in acquiring new planktotrophic larval forms, and some of the reasons for these differences are indicated. Expand
Individuals, hierarchies and processes: towards a more complete evolutionary theory
It is urged that interlevel causation should feature centrally in explanatory hypotheses of evolution, and upward causation from genome dynamics to the directed introduction of mutants may be more important in a given case. Expand