Background Selections of the Pale and Melanic Forms of the Cryptic Moth, Phigalia titea (Cramer)

  title={Background Selections of the Pale and Melanic Forms of the Cryptic Moth, Phigalia titea (Cramer)},
  author={T. D. Sargent},
KETTLEWELL1 demonstrated that the pale (typical) and melanic (carbonaria) forms of the peppered moth, Biston betularia L., tend to rest on white and black backgrounds respectively, when presented with a choice between the two. I wish to summarize results obtained in a similar experiment, using typical and melanic individuals of the North American geometrid, Phigalia titea. 
Resting site selection in the geometrid moth Phigalia pilosaria (Lepidoptera: Geometridae)
When tested in a cylindrical apparatus, males of both typical and melanic morphs of the nocturnal moth Phigalia pilosaria (Schiffermueller) prefer to rest on light backgrounds. This preference isExpand
Background selection by the peppered moth (Biston betularia Linn.): individual differences
Differences between family broods indicate that some genetic bias in background selection exists in dimorphically coloured, cryptic moths and the production of artificially selected lines with consistent but opposing preferences will allow us to investigate the co-evolution of pattern and behaviour. Expand
Further experiments on resting site selection by the typical and melanic forms of the moth, Allophyes oxyacanthae (Caradrinidae)
The results of the two years' experiments indicate that it is necessary to postulate that, in addition to the pleiotropic effects of alleles at the melanic locus, another locus (or loci) is involved in the control of resting site selection. Expand
The Distribution of Melanism in the Pale Brindled Beauty Moth, Phigalia pedaria, in Great Britain
It is argued that in areas of high rainfall, particularly where smoke was also present in the atmosphere, such surfaces as rocks and trees were darkened by the action of rain, or rain and soot, and ‘natural selection’ augmented by ‘hereditary tendency’ favoured these forms. Expand
The “Classical” Explanation of Industrial Melanism
Industrial melanism is the term used to describe changes in the frequencies of pale and melanic morphs in a variety of insect species, primarily cryptic moths, that have been noted since the adventExpand
Experiments on resting site selection by nocturnal moths
Studies on the mechanism of background selection, and on background selection in polymorphic species, are reviewed. Expand
Further background‐choice experiments on cryptic Lepidoptera
Background choice experiments were performed using polymorphic night flying moths common in Britain and emerging at different times of the year using morphs of the same species to find the backgrounds most appropriate to their colouration. Expand
On the selective forces acting in the industrial melanism of Biston and Oligia moths (Lepidoptera: Geometridae and Noctuidae)
Melanic and typical morphs of Biston betularius (L.), Oligia latruncula (D. & S.) and 0. strigilis (L.) made choices between vertical trunks and horizontal branches, sprayed with white and blackExpand
Progressive background in moths, and a quantitative measure of crypsis
A method is presented for quantitative estimation of the degree of crypsis of species seen by visual predators against known backgrounds based upon a comparison between transects taken across animal and background colour patterns, which is useful for studies of Crypsis as well as in sexual selection. Expand
Lichen mimesis in mid-Mesozoic lacewings
The earliest fossil evidence of a mimetic relationship between the moth lacewing mimic Lichenipolystoechotes gen. nov. and its co-occurring fossil lichen model Daohugouthallus ciliiferus is provided. Expand


Recognition of Appropriate Backgrounds by the Pale and Black Phases of Lepidoptera
It is shown that in the Manchester district between the years 1848 and 1898, the jet-black form of the peppered moth had an approximate 30 per cent advantage over pale lichen-like individuals, which were the only ones known there until the middle of the last century. Expand
Cryptic Moths: Effects on Background Selections of Painting the Circumocular Scales
The results suggest that selections of background by cryptic moths, with respect to background reflectance, are genetically fixed. Expand
Industrial Melanism in North American Moths
  • D. Owen
  • Geography
  • The American Naturalist
  • 1961
(1) Within the last 100 years about 70 species of moth in Britain and Europe have developed melanic forms in and around industrial areas. These have increased in relative frequency through naturalExpand
A survey of the frequencies of Biston betularia (L.) (Lep.) and its melanic forms in Great Britain
A survey of the frequencies of Biston betularia (L.) (Lep.) and its melanic forms in Great Britain