Back Problems Due To Heavy Backpacks in School Children

@article{Journals2013BackPD,
  title={Back Problems Due To Heavy Backpacks in School Children},
  author={Iosr Journals and Shalini Rai},
  journal={IOSR Journal of Humanities and Social Science},
  year={2013},
  volume={10},
  pages={22-26}
}
Students and backpacks are a common sight today. Backpacks come in all sizes, colors, fabrics, and shapes and help children’s of all ages express their own personal sense of style. Many packs feature multiple compartments that help students stay organized while they carry their books and papers from home to school and back again. Backpacks are, though, they can strain muscles and joints and may cause back pain if they're too heavy or are used incorrectly. Many students carry school backpacks… 
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TLDR
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Many students carry school backpacks that exceed 10 to 15 percent of their body weight, which puts them at risk for back pain and related disorders. Improper backpack use can also lead to poor
Assessment of Posture and Musculoskeletal Pain in School Going Girls Using Backpacks
TLDR
Pain and postural abnormalities are associated with the use of backpacks in children and commonest site of pain is shoulder and frequent postural abnormality noted was a forward head posture.
Parental Awareness About School Backpack, Weight Carried by Their Children and related Musculoskeletal Problems
TLDR
Most parents were aware of the standards and handling of school backpack but in reality, more than two third of their children were carrying heavy school backpacks.
School bags and associated back pain
TLDR
Overall, more frequent occurrence of back pain and tiredness in schoolchildren was associated with heavier school bags, and the occurrence ofBack pain due to school bag was related to gender (i.e., back pain was more common in girls compared to boys).
Musculoskeletal problems and backpack carriage among students in Nigeria.
TLDR
There is a high prevalence of MSDs among secondary school students in this study but it is not related to backpack carriage; further research is required to identify the factors responsible for the MSDs, as well as suitable interventions to reduce its impact.
Heavy School Bags and Musculoskeletal System Problems among School-Going Children
TLDR
It is recommended that the school management should implement strategies to reduce weight of school bag in collaboration with teachers, parents, and children.
Awareness of parents about characteristics and carrying habits of backpack and its comparison with behavioral practices of their children
Background: Use of heavy backpacks and their potential to cause musculoskeletal injuries has been a matter of concern. Spine is in critical stage of development between the age group of 11-14 years.
Assessment of change in cervical and shoulder posture due to carriage of different weight of backpack
TLDR
The value of cervical and spinal region angles in static condition was increased with increase in weight of back pack in the girls and boys and the angle of deviation of spinal and cervical region especially flexion and extension of boys and girls in dynamic condition was found to be decreasing.
Back pain and school bag weight – a study on Indian children and review of literature
TLDR
There appears a need to consider psychosocial factors along with physical factors when evaluating a young student with back pain.
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References

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TLDR
There are significant questions regarding their long-term effects on the musculoskeletal system, particularly for children, and backpacks are a convenient way to carry things, but the design of the backpack itself must be heavily considered when applying these findings to student backpacks.
BACKPACKS, BACK PAIN SAGITTAL SPINE CURVES AND TRUNK ALIGNMENT IN SCHOOL ADOLESCENTS
TLDR
Backpack carrying resulted in a forward lean of the upper trunk, and a decrease of cervical lordosis, which seem statistically to increase the incidence of back pain in the school period and during the holidays, particularly in girls.
Backpacks, Back Pain, Sagittal Spinal Curves and Trunk Alignment in Adolescents: A Logistic and Multinomial Logistic Analysis
TLDR
Backpack carrying, particularly asymmetrically, results in shift of upper trunk and shoulder and cervical lordosis, which furthermore seem to increase back pain in school period and holidays and Symmetric backpack carrying is recommended.
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TLDR
Findings revealed that both backpack weight and time carried influenced cervical and shoulder posture, and forward head posture increased when carrying a backpack, especially one with a heavy load.
Gait and posture responses to backpack load during level walking in children.
TLDR
The results showed that both the backpack load and walking distance exerted no significant influence on stride and temporal parameters, however, when compared with the 0, 10 and 15% load conditions, the 20% load induced a significant increase in trunk inclination.
Effects of backpack load position on spatiotemporal parameters and trunk forward lean.
TLDR
Findings on spatiotemporal parameters indicate that a reduction in gait velocity and cadence and an increase in double support time for the 20% lower configuration could be a compensatory mechanism for children to minimize either the induced gait instability or mechanical strain on the musculoskeletal system.
Schoolbag weight and musculoskeletal symptoms in New Zealand secondary schools.
TLDR
Although musculoskeletal symptoms are believed to be multifactorial in origin, the carriage of heavy schoolbags is a suspected contributory factor and may represent an overlooked daily physical stress for New Zealand secondary school students.
Middle school children's participation in activities and the effects of pain from backpack use on participation.
TLDR
It is verified that pain from backpack use causes middle school students' participation in activities to be difficult and continued research may further reveal that students may decrease the frequency that they engage in activities because of difficulty and pain.
A pilot study for the development of a primary prevention program: what is the average weight of a fourth grader's backpack?
TLDR
Back in the ‘old days,’ before backpacks, the loads carried by children seemed much lighter, and they probably were after all, children could carry what they could fit under one arm, since backpacks can hold more than a child could otherwise carry.
Perceived school bag load, duration of carriage, and method of transport to school are associated with spinal pain in adolescents: an observational study.
QUESTION Are use and perceived load of school bags and the prevalence of spinal pain different between male and female adolescents? Is use of school bags related to perceived load of school bags? Are
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