author={Rosalynd L. Smyth and Stephen P. Brearey},
  journal={Encyclopedia of Respiratory Medicine},
  pages={268 - 275}

Figures and Tables from this paper


Pediatricians should be familiar with the updated, revised version of a previous 2006 AAP guideline on bronchiolitis as well as evidence behind available diagnostic and treatment modalities.

Rhinovirus Infection in Children with Acute Bronchiolitis and Its Impact on Recurrent Wheezing and Asthma Development

The most recent findings of the role of RV infection in children with acute bronchiolitis, its impact on subsequent asthma development, and the implication in clinical practice are summarized.

Human neutrophil elastase in RSV bronchiolitis.

It is shown that serum and nasal HNE concentrations were significantly higher in RSV bronchiolitis patients than in controls, they did not return to normal after the respiratory symptoms had improved, and they showed no significant correlations with clinical score of severity.

Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection in Children with Neuromuscular Impairment

Data from the literature suggests that in all children with NMI, who have to be hospitalized with severe clinical deterioration due to an airway infection, at least one specimen of nasopharyngeal secretions should be sent as soon as possible to a virology laboratory to detect viral pathogens.

A Bronchiolitis Study: The Overuse of Bronchiolitis Therapies in Children Admitted Into the Hospital

The amount of ineffective procedures being used in infants admitted into the pediatric emergency room, and the effect it had on the patient’s average hospital stay were indentified.

Clinical Epidemiological Characteristics and Risk Factors for Severe Bronchiolitis Caused by Respiratory Syncytial Virus in Vietnamese Children

The number of hospitalized infants with bronchiolitis caused by RSV has an upward trend during the winter-spring season (from October to March), and this study confirms that age, preterm birth, breastfeeding under 6 months, history of exposure to cigarette smoking, low birth weight, nonbreastfeeding for the first six months, early weaning, and exposition to cigarette smoke increased the severe disease.

Time to Say Goodbye to Bronchiolitis, Viral Wheeze, Reactive Airways Disease, Wheeze Bronchitis and All That

A proposed simplified approach to the nomenclature used to categorize virus associated LRTIs is presented based on an understanding of the underlying pathological processes and how these contribute to the physical signs.

Cytokines in the Respiratory Airway as Biomarkers of Severity and Prognosis for Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection: An Update

Current studies that describe molecules produced by patients during hRSV infection and their potential as biomarkers to anticipate the severity of the disease caused by this virus are discussed.

How Respiratory Syncytial Virus Genotypes Influence the Clinical Course in Infants Hospitalized for Bronchiolitis

The disease course in infants hospitalized for acute RSV bronchiolitis may depend on the RSV genotype, and infants with the ON1 genotype had a milder clinical course than those with NA1 and more risk factors for asthma, despite having the highest viral loads.



Systematic review of the biology and medical management of respiratory syncytial virus infection.

  • C. Black
  • Medicine, Biology
    Respiratory care
  • 2003
No cure exists for respiratory syncytial virus infection, but commonly employed palliative treatments include oxygen, inhaling beta(2) agonists, racemic epinephrine, dornase alfa, systemic and inhaled corticosteroids, inhaled ribavirin, and nasopharyngeal suctioning.

The pathogenesis of respiratory syncytial virus disease in childhood.

There is compelling evidence to suggest that the host cell immune response also has a prominent role in disease pathogenesis, and non-immunological factors may also be important.

Revised indications for the use of palivizumab and respiratory syncytial virus immune globulin intravenous for the prevention of respiratory syncytial virus infections.

Recommendations for administering RSV prophylaxis to infants and children with congenital heart disease, for identifying infants with a history of preterm birth and chronic lung disease who are most likely to benefit from immunoprophylaxis, and for reducing the risk of RSV exposure and infection in high-risk children are provided.

Dual Infection of Infants by Human Metapneumovirus and Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus Is Strongly Associated with Severe Bronchiolitis

Abstract The association between severe bronchiolitis and dual infection by human metapneumovirus (hMPV) and human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) was investigated in !2-year-old infants with

Diffuse panbronchiolitis. A disease of the transitional zone of the lung.

Diffuse panbronchiolitis belongs to a distinctly different category from these diseases, and should be distinguished from them, because it may often show rapid progression with fatal outcome.

An investigation into causative factors in patients with bronchiectasis.

Intensive investigation of this population of patients with bronchiectasis led to identification of one or more causative factor in 47% of cases, and the cause identified had implications for prognosis and treatment.

Primary ciliary dyskinesia: diagnosis and standards of care.

Management of PCD should be multidisciplinary, with input from centres with a special interest in PCD, having access to paediatric and adult chest physicians, otolaryngologists and audiological physicians, physiotherapists, counselling services and fertility clinics.

New human coronavirus, HCoV‐NL63, associated with severe lower respiratory tract disease in Australia

It is proposed that HCoV‐NL63 is a global and seasonal pathogen of both children and adults associated with severe LRT illness in an Australian hospital setting during the cooler months of the year.

Nebulised antipseudomonal antibiotic therapy in cystic fibrosis: a meta-analysis of benefits and risks.

Meta-analysis shows benefit for nebulised antipseudomonal antibiotic therapy with no demonstrable adverse effect other than a possible increase in in vitro antibiotic resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa of the respiratory tract.

Primary hypogammaglobulinaemia: a survey of clinical manifestations and complications.

There is particular concern that infection with mycoplasmas and enteroviruses can be resistant to treatment and the high incidence of lymphoma and gastric carcinoma in patients with common variable immunodeficiency is high-lighted.