• Corpus ID: 154898821


  author={Stephen Broadberry and Bruce M. Campbell and Alexander Klein and Mark A. Overton and Bas van Leeuwen},
  journal={Studies in Economics},
This paper reconstructs GDP from the output side for medieval and early modern Britain. In contrast to the long run stagnation of living standards suggested by daily real wage rates, output-based GDP per capita exhibits modest but positive trend growth. One way of reconciling the two series is through variation in the annual number of days worked, but there are also reasons to doubt the representativeness of the sharp rise and fall of daily real wage rates in the late middle ages, which creates… 
Accounting for the “Little Divergence”: What drove economic growth in pre-industrial Europe, 1300–1800?
We test various hypotheses about the causes of the Little Divergence, using new data and focusing on trends in GDP per capita and urbanization. We find evidence that confirms the hypothesis that
Trends in real wages in Denmark since the Late Middle Ages
ABSTRACT This article constructs long-span time series indices on wages in Denmark and explores the growth in living standards in the pre-industrial era. There were several persistent upward and
Growth under Extractive Institutions? Latin American Per Capita GDP in Colonial Times
This article presents new estimations of per capita GDP in colonial times for the two pillars of the Spanish empire: Mexico and Peru. We find dynamic economies as evidenced by increasing real wages,
Economic Growth in England, 1250-1850: Some New Estimates Using a Demand Side Approach
Using the demand side approach we construct a new set of estimatesof per capita agricultural output and per capita GDP for England overthe period 1250-1850. Our estimates of per capita GDP suggest
Seven Centuries of European Economic Growth and Decline
This paper investigates very long run pre-industrial economic development. New annual GDP per capita data for six European countries over the last seven hundred years paint a clearer picture of the
Long-Run Commodity Prices and Economic Growth : 1650 – 2010 January 2015
  • Economics
  • 2018
The direction of trend in relative commodity prices has implications for many developing country growth rates. To assess causal underpinnings we create ultralong aggregate series shaped by common
In a Malthusian environment, per‐capita incomes are stagnant, meaning they cannot exhibit sustained growth. However, they can still display volatility and persistence when hit by shocks. This article
Understanding Per‐Capita Income Growth in Preindustrial Europe
In a Malthusian environment, per‐capita incomes are stagnant, meaning they cannot exhibit sustained growth. However, they can still display volatility and persistence when hit by shocks. This
Accounting for Breakout in Britain: The Industrial Revolution Through a Malthusian Lens
This paper develops a simple dynamic model to examine the breakout from a Malthusian economy to a modern growth regime. It identifies several factors that determine the fastest rate at which the


The long decline of a leading economy: GDP in central and northern Italy, 1300–1913
The purpose of the article is to present the statistical reconstruction of a series of per capita output in central–northern Italy between 1300 and 1913. The various phases of both the statistical
British Economic Growth during the Industrial Revolution
In recent years, traditional views of a rapidly growing British economy between 1700 and 1850 have been overturned by convincing new research indicating that British economic growth was, in fact,
The Macroeconomic Aggregates for England, 1209-2008
Estimates are developed of the major macroeconomic aggregates ? wages, land rents, interest rates, prices, factor shares, sectoral shares in output and employment, and real wages ? for England by
The Character of growth before 'modern economics growth'? The GDP of Holland between 1347 and 1807
On the basis of a newly constructed dataset of the national accounts of the province of Holland in the period between 1347 and 1800, we analyze the pattern of growth in this region, which was one of
  • H. Voth
  • Economics, History
    The Journal of Economic History
  • 2001
It is calculated that consumption per capita, adjusted for changes in leisure, remained essentially unchanged between 1760 and 1830, and adds further weight to pessimistic interpretations.
The Condition of the Working Class in England, 1209–2004
  • G. Clark
  • Economics, History
    Journal of Political Economy
  • 2005
I use building workers’ wages for 1209–2004 and the skill premium to consider the causes and consequences of the Industrial Revolution. Real wages were trendless before 1800, as would be predicted
The Long March of History: Farm Wages, Population, and Economic Growth, England 1209-1869
The paper forms three series for English farm workers 1209-1869: nominal day wages, the implied marginal product of a day of farm labour, and the purchasing power of a days? wage in terms of farm
Britain and Ireland 1050-1530: Economy and Society
This book analyses the economic and social development of Britain and Ireland between 1050 and 1530. It compares economic institutions, the structure of production and rates of economic development
The great divergence in European wages and prices
This paper traces the history of prices and wages in European cities from the fourteenth century to the First World War. It is shown that the divergence in real incomes observed in the mid-nineteenth