BMPs: from bone to body morphogenetic proteins.

  title={BMPs: from bone to body morphogenetic proteins.},
  author={Darja Obradovic Wagner and Christina Sieber and Raghu Bhushan and Jan H. Boergermann and Daniel Graf and Petra Knaus},
  journal={Science signaling},
  volume={3 107},
The family of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) comprises approximately 30 secreted cytokines that signal through transmembrane serine/threonine kinase receptors. The BMP signaling pathways are fine-tuned on multiple levels: Extracellular antagonists modify ligand activity; several co-receptors enhance or inhibit downstream signaling events through multiple mechanisms; and intracellular molecules further regulate the signaling outcome and mediate crosstalk with other pathways. BMPs affect… CONTINUE READING