author={Antonios Nathanail and Ioannis Contopoulos},
  journal={The Astrophysical Journal},
We investigate the structure of the steady-state force-free magnetosphere around a Kerr black hole in various astrophysical settings. The solution Ψ(r, θ) depends on the distributions of the magnetic field line angular velocity ω(Ψ) and the poloidal electric current I(Ψ). These are obtained self-consistently as eigenfunctions that allow the solution to smoothly cross the two singular surfaces of the problem, the inner light surface inside the ergosphere, and the outer light surface, which is… 
Black hole magnetospheres in the Born–Infeld theory
We study the force-free electrodynamics on rotating black holes in the Born–Infeld (BI) effective theory. The stream equation describing a steady and axisymmetric magnetosphere is derived. From its
The structure of magnetically dominated energy-extracting black hole magnetospheres: Dependencies on field line angular velocity
If a magnetically dominated magnetosphere is to extract a black hole’s rotational energy and transmit it to distant regions, then the inner light surface of that magnetosphere must lie within the
Analytic Properties of Force-free Jets in the Kerr Spacetime. III. Uniform Field Solution
The structure of the steady axisymmetric force-free magnetosphere of a Kerr black hole (BH) is governed by a second-order partial differential equation of Aϕ depending on two “free” functions and ,
Magnetosphere structure of a Kerr black hole: Marginally force-free equatorial boundary condition
  • Z. Pan
  • Physics
    Physical Review D
  • 2018
The role of equatorial boundary condition in the structure of a force-free black hole magnetosphere was rarely discussed, since previous studies have been focused on the field lines entering the
Force-free electrodynamics near rotation axis of a Kerr black hole
Despite their potential importance for understanding astrophysical jets, physically realistic exact solutions for magnetospheres around Kerr black holes have not been found, even in the force-free
Magnetosphere of a spinning black hole and the role of the current sheet
We revisit the problem of a spinning black hole immersed in a uniformly magnetized plasma within the context of force-free electrodynamics. Such configurations have been found to relax to stationary
Spacetime approach to force-free magnetospheres
Force-Free Electrodynamics (FFE) describes magnetically dominated relativistic plasma via non-linear equations for the electromagnetic field alone. Such plasma is thought to play a key role in the
Stationary electro-vacuum fields around black holes
This is the second lecture of `RAGtime' series on electrodynamical effects near black holes. We will summarize the basic equations of relativistic electrodynamics in terms of spin-coefficient
Black hole magnetosphere with small-scale flux tubes
There is observational evidence that the X-ray continuum source that creates the broad fluorescent emission lines in some Seyfert Galaxies may be compact and located at a few gravitational radii
Properties of Trans-fast Magnetosonic Jets in Black Hole Magnetospheres
Traveling across several orders of magnitude in distance, relativistic jets from strong gravity regions to asymptotic flat spacetime regions are believed to consist of several general relativistic


The force-free magnetosphere of a rotating black hole
We revisit the Blandford–Znajek process and solve the fundamental equation that governs the structure of the steady-state force-free magnetosphere around a Kerr black hole. The solution depends on
We consider a stationary axisymmetric force-free degenerate magnetosphere of a rotating Kerr black hole surrounded by a thin, Keplerian, infinitely conducting accretion disk. We focus on the
The axisymmetric pulsar magnetosphere
We present, for the first time, the structure of the axisymmetric force-free magnetosphere of an aligned rotating magnetic dipole, in the case in which there exists a sufficiently large charge
A Measurement of the Electromagnetic Luminosity of a Kerr Black Hole
Some active galactic nuclei, microquasars, and gamma-ray bursts may be powered by the electromagnetic braking of a rapidly rotating black hole. We investigate this possibility via axisymmetric
General relativistic magnetohydrodynamic simulations of monopole magnetospheres of black holes
ABSTRACT In this paper we report the results of the first ever time-dependent general rela-tivistic magnetohydrodynamic simulations of the magnetically dominated monopolemagnetospheres of black holes.
Electromagnetic extraction of energy from Kerr black holes
When a rotating black hole is threaded by magnetic field lines supported by external currents flowing in an equatorial disc, an electric potential difference will be induced. If the field strength is
Electrodynamics of black hole magnetospheres
The main goal of this research is to get better insights into the properties of the plasma-filled magnetospheres of black holes by means of direct numerical simulations and, ultimately, to resolve
Loaded magnetohydrodynamic flows in Kerr spacetime
The effect of mass and energy loading on the efficiency at which energy can be extracted magnetically from a Kerr black hole is explored, using a semi-analytic, ideal MHD model that incorporates
Aligned Rotating Magnetospheres. General Analysis
We consider the problem of finding self-consistent steady-state axisymmetric solutions for the electron and ion densities and velocities, as well as the electromagnetic field, outside a uniformly
The current state of the art in the modeling of pulsar magnetospheres invokes either the vacuum or force-free limits for the magnetospheric plasma. Neither of these limits can simultaneously account