BK virus: Current understanding of pathogenicity and clinical disease in transplantation

  title={BK virus: Current understanding of pathogenicity and clinical disease in transplantation},
  author={Stephanie Chong and Michelle Antoni and Andrew Macdonald and Matthew B. Reeves and Mark Harber and Ciara Magee},
  journal={Reviews in Medical Virology},
BK polyomavirus (BKV) is an important cause of graft loss in renal transplant recipients that continues to pose a significant challenge to clinicians due to its frequently unpredictable onset, persistence, and the lack of effective antiviral agents or prevention strategies. This review covers our current understanding of epidemiology, viral transmission and disease progression, and treatment and prevention strategies that have been used to manage this disease. 

BK Virus Nephropathy in Kidney Transplantation: A State-of-the-Art Review

In this in-depth state-of-the-art review, the history of the virus, virology, epidemiology, cellular response, pathogenesis, methods of screening and diagnosis, evidence-based treatment strategies, and upcoming therapeutics are discussed, along with the issue of re-transplantation in patients.

Pre-Transplantation Assessment of BK Virus Serostatus: Significance, Current Methods, and Obstacles

The different BK PyV VP1 antigens types used for detection are reviewed and the various BKPyV serostatus assay techniques’ advantages and disadvantages are considered.

BK Polyomavirus Hijacks Extracellular Vesicles for En Bloc Transmission

A new mechanism is shown that can be released into EVs, enabling viral particles to infect cells using an alternative entry pathway, and likely plays a critical role during the primary infection and in the persistence, but also the reactivation, of BKPyV.

Pathogenicity of BK virus on the urinary system

Introduction The polyomaviruses are omnipresent in nature. The major sites of BK virus appearance are the kidney tubular epithelial cells and urinary bladder surface transitional cells. Material and

Implementing a regional standardized BK polyomavirus screening protocol across eleven transplant centres

Adherence to the protocol for BKPyV screening for kidney transplants performed in calendar years 2016–2017 was low with 54% at 12 months and 38% at 24 months, reflecting challenges of managing transplant patients at all centres.

Post-allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation viral reactivations and viremias: a focused review on human herpesvirus-6, BK virus and adenovirus

The outcomes of patients with these viremias remain unsatisfactory and even long-term survivors experience increased morbidity, so some patients develop significant morbidity and may not need therapy at all and some of the antiviral therapies used are potentially toxic.

BK virus nephropathy in a heart transplant recipient

It is recommended that the BK virus be considered as a cause of renal dysfunction in heart transplant recipients, with the aim of detecting its replication in time to reduce immunosuppressive therapy before irreversible compromise of renal function may manifest.

A Nomogram for Predicting BK Virus Activation in Kidney Transplantation Recipients Using Clinical Risk Factors

Results showed that patients with BK virus active infection were associated with a deceased donor, had lower direct bilirubin levels, a higher proportion of albumin in serum protein electrophoresis, and lower red blood cells and neutrophil counts.



BK-related polyomavirus vasculopathy in a renal-transplant recipient.

A renal-transplant recipient is described in whom a disseminated BK virus infection with vascular tropism developed, resulting in systemic vasculopathy, the capillary leak syndrome, and death.

Adjuvant Low‐Dose Cidofovir Therapy for BK Polyomavirus Interstitial Nephritis in Renal Transplant Recipients

  • D. KuypersA. Vandooren Y. Vanrenterghem
  • Medicine, Biology
    American journal of transplantation : official journal of the American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons
  • 2005
BK virus interstitial nephritis (BKVIN) is a serious complication after kidney grafting, necessitating drastic reduction of immunosuppressive therapy in order to enable viral clearance. Despite these

A Prospective Longitudinal Study of BK Virus Infection in 104 Renal Transplant Recipients

BK virus infection during the first year after renal transplantation was studied prospectively in 104 unselected consecutive patients and the noncoding control region (NCCR) of BKV isolates was sequenced.

Polyomavirus BK.

Leflunomide for polyomavirus type BK nephropathy.

Leflunomide (Arava), approved for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, is an immunosuppressive drug, yet its active metabolite, A77 1726, has substantial antiviral activity in vitro and in animals.

BK Virus Encephalitis in HIV-Infected Patients: Case Report and Review

The authors report two HIV-infected patients with the diagnosis of BKPyV encephalitis and discuss the main clinical, diagnostic, and therapeutic aspects of this infection in patients with AIDS.

BK Polyomavirus in Solid Organ Transplantation

  • H. HirschP. Randhawa
  • Medicine
    American journal of transplantation : official journal of the American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons
  • 2013
Screening kidney transplant patients for BK polyomavirus replication in urine and blood has become the key recommendation to guide the reduction of immunosuppression in patients with BKV viremia.

The role of BK virus in acute respiratory tract disease and the presence of BKV DNA in tonsils

Sera from seven patients showed a seroconversion to BKV and clinical signs of acute upper respiratory tract infection were exhibited by each of these patients.

Everolimus leads to a lower risk of BKV viremia than mycophenolic acid in de novo renal transplantation patients: a single‐center experience

The risk of developing BKV viremia in kidney transplant recipients receiving everolimus or mycophenolic acid as maintenance therapy as well as other immunosuppressive regimens is examined.

The use of brincidofovir for the treatment of mixed dsDNA viral infection.

  • J. CamargoM. Morris K. Komanduri
  • Medicine, Biology
    Journal of clinical virology : the official publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
  • 2016