BIRD PREDATION AS A SELECTIVE AGENT IN A BUTTERFLY POPULATION

@article{Bowers1985BIRDPA,
  title={BIRD PREDATION AS A SELECTIVE AGENT IN A BUTTERFLY POPULATION},
  author={M. Deane Bowers and Irene L. Brown and Darryl Wheye},
  journal={Evolution},
  year={1985},
  volume={39}
}
In a population of the checkerspot butterfly, Euphydryas chalcedona, the detached wings of 309 individuals that had been attacked and eaten by birds were collected during a single flight season. During this time period a representative sample of 296 live butterflies in this population was photographed. Comparison of sex ratio and coloration of those butterflies that had been attacked with those that had not showed, first, that birds attacked slightly more females than males; and second, that… 
Differential Bird Predator Attack Rate on Seasonal Forms of the Map Butterfly (Araschnia levana L.): Does the Substrate Matter?
TLDR
The European map butterfly (Araschnia levana L.) is a striking example of seasonal plasticity and static visual signals provide a promising first step to test the functional significance of this striking seasonal polyphenism.
Butterfly visual characteristics and ontogeny of responses to butterflies by a specialized tropical bird
  • P. Chai
  • Environmental Science, Biology
  • 1996
TLDR
A single butterfly morphological parameter termed body shape (body length/thoracic diameter ratio) can adequately predict the feeding responses of jacamars and resulted in a bimodal acceptability distribution of sympatric butterflies.
INTERSEXUAL COMPARISON OF MIMETIC PROTECTION IN THE
TLDR
The high degree of bird-to-bird variability in response to P. polyxenes mimics suggests that there is a spectrum in ability or willingness of predators to discriminate among mimics of varying similarity to the model.
Interpretation of Wing Pattern Elements in Relation to Bird Predation on Adult Hyalophora (Saturniidae)
TLDR
Patterns of wing damage and behavior of adults when threatened were evaluated in the context of formal models of wing markings as anti-predator mechanisms and certain markings are highly conserved and concordant with DNA-based saturniid phylogeny.
Beak marks on butterfly wings with special reference to Japanese black swallowtail
TLDR
All the evidence suggested that an appreciable predation pressure by birds operated on BSB adult populations, and variation in the BM rate was caused by variation in avian life history and predator size.
Predation, thermoregulation, and wing color in pierid butterflies
TLDR
It is suggested that Pieris butterflies are relatively unpalatable to visual predators, supporting the idea that the white wing pigment of Pieris represents aposematic coloration, and the degree of palatibility may vary among Pieris species.
INTERSEXUAL COMPARISON OF MIMETIC PROTECTION IN THE BLACK SWALLOWTAIL BUTTERFLY, PAPILIO POLYXENES: EXPERIMENTS WITH CAPTIVE BLUE JAY PREDATORS
TLDR
The high degree of bird‐to‐bird variability in response to P. polyxenes mimics suggests that there is a spectrum in ability or willingness of predators to discriminate among mimics of varying similarity to the model.
Mimicry-related Predation on Two Viceroy Butterfly (Limenitis archippus) Phenotypes
TLDR
It is proposed that geographic model-switching explains the large-scale modern-day correlation between Danaus biogeography and viceroy wing color, and that differential predation on light and dark viceroys by captive red-winged blackbirds previously exposed to either monarchs or queens demonstrates the selective mechanism responsible for the evolution of regional vicerOY races.
Smooth-billed ani (Crotophaga ani) predation on butterflies in Mato Grosso, Brazil: risk decreases with increased group size
TLDR
The predatory behavior of smooth-billed anis (Crotophaga ani) on butterflies, and the spacing behavior of the butterflies which were concentrated on a mineral-rich beach on the Cristalino River, in Mato Grosso, Brazil, are examined to confirm the dilution effect of group size for butterflies.
Lizards as Predators of Butterflies: Shape of Wing Damage and Effects of Eyespots
TLDR
The data provide evidence that butterfly eyespots can be an effective defence against lizards, and thus that predation by lizards can select for eyespots in butterflies.
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 57 REFERENCES
Predation by birds on great southern white butterflies as a function of palatability, sex, and habitat
TLDR
Wild females of Ascia monuste may have received fewer attacks than expected either because birds had learned to distinguish the less palatable females from the more palatable males, or because the thermoregulatory behavior of males made them more vulnerable.
Batesian Mimicry: Selective Advantage of Color Pattern
TLDR
Field studies of releases and recaptures of diurnal moths painted with yellow to resemble the edible tiger swallowtail and of black moths that resemble a toxic species of swallowtail are interpreted as showing a greater predation pressure on the yellow-painted than on the black moth and, therefore, as confirming the Batesian theory of mimicry.
Mortality of the Monarch Butterfly (Danaus plexippus L.): Avian Predation at Five Overwintering Sites in Mexico
TLDR
Observations of monarch overwintering sites in Mexico and observations of birds foraging in mixed flocks indicate that individual birds of several species have learned to penetrate the monarch's cardenolide-based chemical defense.
Predation on Aposematic Ithomiine Butterflies by Tanagers (Pipraeidea melanonota)
TLDR
Tanagers (Pipraeidea melanonota) have been found preying heavily and selectively on winter concentrations of 22 species of ithomiine butterflies in the region of Sumare, Sao Paulo, and have never been reported to have been eaten by vertebrate predators.
Mimicry in North American checkerspot butterflies: Euphydryas phaeton and Chlosyne harrisii (Nymphalidae)
TLDR
Charrisii seems to be an effective Batesian mimic of E.phaeton, which is a potential mimic of the unpalatable Euphydryas phaeton and both species are inhabitants of wet meadow habitats where they may fly together.
Does bird predation influence the spot‐number variation in Maniola jurtina (Lepidoptera)?
TLDR
For six years samples of the satyrine butterfly Maniolajurtina L. jurtina were collected on small islands in southern Sweden and scored for beak marks and it was suggested that birds act as a selective factor influencing the spot-number variation.
Field Observations of Bird Predation on Neotropical Moths
TLDR
Observations of a group of moth-eating birds, viewed over a period of several months in northern Venezuela, found that cryptically colored moths are assumed to be highly palatable while the more brilliantly colored species are thought to be unpalatable.
Natural Selection for Miillerian Mimicry in Heliconius erato in Costa Rica
TLDR
The results indicate that M�llerian mimicry was functioning to protect the butterflies from predation.
The significance of beak marks on the wings of an aposematic, distasteful and polymorphic butterfly
TLDR
It is found that large individuals of both sexes are more frequently beak marked than small ones in a population of Danaus chrysippus (L.) (Danaidae), a well known distasteful species.
...
1
2
3
4
5
...