author={Kent A. Stevens},
  • K. A. Stevens
  • Published 12 June 2006
  • Environmental Science, Geography
Abstract The binocular fields of view of seven theropod dinosaurs are mapped using sculpted life reconstructions of their heads and techniques adopted from ophthalmic field perimetry. The tall, narrow snout and laterally facing eyes of the allosauroids Allosaurus and Carcharodontosaurus restricted binocular vision to a region only approximately 20° wide, comparable to that of modern crocodiles. In contrast, the coelurosaurs Daspletosaurus, Tyrannosaurus, Nanotyrannus, Velociraptor, and Troodon… 

The endocranium and trophic ecology of Velociraptor mongoliensis

X‐ray computed microtomography is used to reconstruct and describe the endocranial anatomy, including the endosseous labyrinth of the inner ear, of the small‐bodied dromaeosaur, Velociraptor mongoliensis, suggesting a complex trophic ecology that mirrors modern predators.

Functional Morphology of Stereospondyl Amphibian Skulls

Size independent skull morphometrics were used, in conjunction with analyses of the fossil record and comparative anatomy, to provide a synthesis of the functional morphology of stereospondyl amphibians, showing the pattern of ‘disaster’ taxa: rapidly diversifying following a mass extinction, spreading to a global distribution, although this high diversity was relatively short-lived.

3D Camouflage in an Ornithischian Dinosaur

Olfactory acuity in theropods: palaeobiological and evolutionary implications

Olfactory acuity was the lowest in ornithomimosaurs and oviraptorids, suggesting a reduced reliance on olfaction and perhaps an omnivorous diet in these theropods.

Visual acuity in the flying snake, Chrysopelea paradisi.

The results demonstrate for that C. paradisi responds to visual stimuli in a digital virtual arena, suitable for future studies of visual control in snakes and other animals in an unconstrained setting.

Allometric growth in the frontals of the Mongolian theropod dinosaur Tarbosaurus bataar

Allometric growth in the frontals of the Mongolian theropod dinosaur Tarbosaurus bataar . Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 67 (X): xxx–xxx. Tarbosaurus bataar is a sister taxon of the well-studied

Dinosaurs , Robots and Tails

The results support the hypothesis that gradual changes in the location of the center of mass resulted in more crouched hind-limb postures, and a shift from hip-driven to knee-driven limb movements through theropod evolution, and suggest that, through careful experimental manipulations during the growth phase of ontogeny, extant birds can potentially be used to gain important insights into previously unexplored aspects of bipedal non-avian theropods locomotion.

New Insights Into the Brain, Braincase, and Ear Region of Tyrannosaurs (Dinosauria, Theropoda), with Implications for Sensory Organization and Behavior

Tyrannosaur sensory biology is consistent with their predatory coelurosaurian heritage, with emphasis on relatively quick, coordinated eye and head movements, and probably sensitive low‐frequency hearing; tyrannosaurs apomorphically enhanced their olfactory apparatus.

Does mutual sexual selection explain the evolution of head crests in pterosaurs and dinosaurs

It is concluded that mutual sexual selection presents a valid hypothesis for the functions of ornithodiran cranial crests and the integration of mutualSexual selection into future studies is critical to the authors' understanding of OrnithodIRan ecology, evolution and particularly questions regarding sexual dimorphism.



Neuroanatomy of flying reptiles and implications for flight, posture and behaviour

The brain and vestibular apparatus in two pterosaurs are compared based on high-resolution computed tomographic (CT) scans from which they were constructed digital endocasts to shed light on adaptation to an aerial lifestyle.

Craniofacial ontogeny in Tyrannosauridae (Dinosauria, Coelurosauria)

An increase in tooth width, accompanied by loss of tooth positions, and a global shift from an immature gracile to a mature robust morphotype in the craniofacial skeleton typifies the ontogenetic changes in T. rex.

Retinotopic representation of the bifoveate eye of the kestrel (Falco sparverius) on the optic tectum

This study used fundus photography and reversed ophthalmoscopy to plot the projection of these foveae in each eye of the American kestrel, and revealed an expanded representation for each fovea on the tectum and a systematic increase in RF size from fovee to periphery.

The eye of a passeriform bird, the European starling (Sturnus vulgaris): eye movement amplitude, visual fields and schematic optics

  • G. Martin
  • Biology
    Journal of Comparative Physiology A
  • 2004
There is evidence that the starling eye may embody a ‘ramp’ retina as a static accommodatory device which could facilitate the simultaneous detection of both close prey and distant predators.

Nanotyrannus, a new genus of pygmy tyrannosaur, from the Latest Cretaceous of Montana

Nanotyrannus, type species Gorgosaurus lancensis, is the smallest known tyrannosaurid dinosaur and represents, with Tyrannosaurus rex, the last and most advanced members of the Family Tyran­

Cranial anatomy of tyrannosaurid dinosaurs from the Late Cretaceous of Alberta, Canada

  • P. Currie
  • Environmental Science, Geography
  • 2003
It is concluded that the most parsimonious interpretation of relationships leads to the separation of the two species of Albertosaurus into Gorgosaurus libratus from the Campanian Dinosaur Park Formation and Albertosaurus sarcophagus from the upper Campanian/lower Maastrichtian Horseshoe Canyon Formation.


The skull of a mature specimen of Tyrannosaurus rex in the Field Museum of Natural History (FMNH PR2081, ‘‘Sue’’) was recently subjected to high-resolution computed tomographic (CT) analysis, and an

The Fossil Record of Predation in Dinosaurs

The K/T extinction event(s) did not end dinosaurian predation, because carnivorous birds remained prominent predators throughout the Cenozoic Era, and dinosaurian predator-prey complexes varies as a function of time and geography.

Why did some ichthyosaurs have such large eyes?

It is suggested that the large eyes of ichthyosaurs are more likely to be the result of simultaneous selection for both sensitivity to low light and visual acuity.


Primitively, theropod orbits are roughly circular in outline and this pattern is re­ tained in most theropods, Large-headed theropods show a much greater diversity in the shape of the orbit, ranging