BICS and CALP: Empirical and Theoretical Status of the Distinction

  title={BICS and CALP: Empirical and Theoretical Status of the Distinction},
  author={Jim Cummins},
(CALP) was introduced by Cummins (1979, 1981a) in order to draw educators’ attention to the timelines and challenges that second language learners encounter as they attempt to catch up to their peers in academic aspects of the school language. BICS refers to conversational fluency in a language while CALP refers to students’ ability to understand and express, in both oral and written modes, concepts and ideas that are relevant to success in school. The terms conversational fluency and academic… 

BICS & CALP Revisited : A Critical Appraisal

This paper makes an attempt to capture introductorily the notions of BICS (Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills) and CALP (Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency) introduced by Cummins by introducing the Threshold Hypothesis as well as the Unitary Traithypothesis.

Re-conceptualizing Science Instruction for English Language Learners 1

The findings of the study suggest that when teachers plan their science instruction around inquiry-based lessons they are able to provide students with more opportunities to develop academic language skills as they speak and do science.

Language Learning, Ecological Validity, and Innovation under Conditions of Superdiversity

Abstract This article describes three pedagogical proposals oriented toward moving language learning to the center of higher education, and further, to emphasizing the importance of both continued

Language Acquisition in Japan : A Sociolinguistic Context

This paper examines theories, such as Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills (BICS) and Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency (CALP), in first language (L1) and second language (L2) acquisition

Pedagogical Language Knowledge

S or later, as schools move to implement the new Common Core and other forthcoming standards, almost every teacher in the United States will face the challenge of how to support students from homes

School language and the role of multilingualism in class

A theoretical framework that specifies different aspects of five domains of skills: language, literacy, interaction, learning, and presentation is presented and results are presented from two studies.

The Effects of a Cognitive Apprenticeship Model on the Argumentative Texts of EFL Learners

In the present study, a quasi-experimental pre-post test design was used to assess the effects of an argumentative writing strategy (POW+TREE) on the performance of grade five and six students of

Pragmatics in CLIL

    Nashwa Nashaat Sobhy
    Revista Española de Lingüística Aplicada/Spanish Journal of Applied Linguistics
  • 2018
This study is a mixed-method, cross-sectional study that compares the acquisition of request modification in the productions of two secondary school groups (15–16 years old) in two school programs:

Academic English: A Conceptual Framework

Learning academic English is probably one of the surest, most reliable ways of attaining socio- economic success in the United States today. Learners cannot function in school settings effectively

Literacy and Language Diversity in the United States, second edition.: T.G. Wiley

In this second edition, Terrence Wiley has updated his introduction to the ways in which differential educational achievement between native English speakers and minority language speakers arises

How Long Does It Take English Learners to Attain Proficiency

One of the most commonly asked questions about the education of language minority students is how long they need special services, such as English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) and bilingual education.

Cognitive/Academic Language Proficiency, Linguistic Interdependence, the Optimum Age Question and Some Other Matters. Working Papers on Bilingualism, No. 19.

The-existence of a global language proficiençy factor is discussed. This factor, cognitive/academic language proficiency (Calk), As directly related to TO and to other aspects.of academic

Between Support and Marginalisation: The Development of Academic Language in Linguistic Minority Children

Within the last several years, researchers working with linguistic minority children have focused increasingly on the development of the types of language proficiencies that are required to perform

Curriculum related assessment, Cummins and bilingual children

Section 1 Introduction to the model of curriculum related assessment: the development of a model of curriculum related assessment, Norah Frederickson and Tony Cline. Section 2 Applying the Cummins

The Threshold Hypothesis, Semilingualism, and Other Contributions to a Deficit View of Linguistic Minorities

Although some educational researchers have appealed to “semilingualism” or “limited bilingualism” to explain differences in student achievement among language minority students, in this article the

Age on Arrival and Immigrant Second Language Learning in Canada: A Reassessment1

The popular notion that younger children are better second language (L2) learners than older children, or as expressed by Penfield and Roberts (1959), that there is an optimal prepubertal age for L2

Psychological assessment of immigrant children: Logic or intuition?

Abstract Current assumptions regarding psychological assessment of immigrant and minority language children are examined in this paper. It is argued that immigrant children tend to acquire fluent

The Learning and Use of Academic English Words.

This article examines the learning and use of academic English words by students who differ socioculturally. It argues that the Graeco-Latin vocabulary of English, which dominates the language's