author={Isabelle Savoie and Diane Helmer and Carolyn J. Green and Armin{\'e}e Kazanjian},
  journal={International Journal of Technology Assessment in Health Care},
  pages={168 - 178}
Objective: To evaluate the sensitivity and precision of various extended search methods in identifying randomized controlled trials (RCTs) for systematic reviews. Method: Prospective analysis of extended search methods (specialized databases or trial registries, reference lists, hand-searching, personal communication, and Internet) used in two systematic reviews of RCTs. The gold standard was the total number of RCTs identified by major databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, etc.) and extended search… 
Searching for CAM evidence: an evaluation of therapy-specific search strategies.
  • K. Pilkington
  • Medicine, Psychology
    Journal of alternative and complementary medicine
  • 2007
The findings suggest that a range of different sources is required for identifying relevant studies, particularly for certain therapies, and the development of an optimum generic search strategy for each therapy is hampered by the variation in indexing of CAM studies.
The contribution of databases to the results of systematic reviews: a cross-sectional study
Results did not change in a systematic manner (i.e., regularly over- or underestimating treatment effects), suggesting that selective searching may not introduce bias in terms of effect estimates.
Checking reference lists to find additional studies for systematic reviews.
There is some evidence to support the use of checking reference lists for locating studies in systematic reviews, but this evidence is derived from weak study designs.
An evaluation of search and selection methods used in dental systematic reviews published in English.
Systematic review methodology is improving, though key components frequently are absent, and many still failed to search more than MEDLINE, document the search strategy and include all languages.
The Use of CIRRIE's Database of International Rehabilitation Research in Conducting Systematic Reviews
Stevinson and Lawlor (2004) compared the articles found by searching large, general databases to those located through searches of subject-specific databases, such as PsychInfo or SportDiscus, to evaluate the results for a systematic review in exercise therapy.
Search and selection methodology of systematic reviews in orthodontics (2000-2004).
  • C. Flores‐Mir, Michael P. Major, P. Major
  • Medicine
    American journal of orthodontics and dentofacial orthopedics : official publication of the American Association of Orthodontists, its constituent societies, and the American Board of Orthodontics
  • 2006


An investigation of the adequacy of MEDLINE searches for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of the effects of mental health care
Systematic reviews of mental health care which are based solely on MEDLINE searches of the literature will miss a large proportion of the relevant RCTs, and are thus liable to random error and bias.
The comprehensiveness of Medline and Embase computer searches
Assessment of the comprehensiveness of Medline and Embase computer searches for controlled trials on the efficacy of homoeopathy, ascorbic acid for common cold, and ginkgo biloba for intermittent claudication and cerebral insufficiency concluded that these searches are sufficient to get an impression of the evidence from controlled trials.
Hand searching the Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health as part of th Cochrane Collaboration.
To identify randomised controlled trials published in the Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health and to explore the contribution of these to the evaluation of public health issues, hand searching was carried out by both authors.
Review of the usefulness of contacting other experts when conducting a literature search for systematic reviews
The usefulness of contacting other experts when searching for relevant references for a systematic review of a field where such a specialist focus does not exist is examined.
Reference bias in reports of drug trials.
Articles published before 1985 describing double blind trials of two or more non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in rheumatoid arthritis were examined to see whether there was any bias in the
Full publication of results initially presented in abstracts. A meta-analysis.
Nearly one half of all studies initially presented in abstract form are subsequently published as full-length reports, and most are published in full within 2 years of appearance as abstracts.
Publication bias and clinical trials.
Systematic reviews of trials and other studies.
The need for the report should be justified by clearly describing the problem for which evidence of effectiveness is required, and describing the needs of the health care professionals and consumers who are to benefit from the report.
Publication bias in clinical research
Publication bias: the case for an international registry of clinical trials.
  • R. Simes
  • Medicine
    Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • 1986
A model is proposed for reviewing clinical trial results which is free from publication bias based on the selection of trials registered in advance in a registry, and the value and importance of an international registry of all clinical trials are illustrated.