BEE FLOWERS: A HYPOTHESIS ON FLOWER VARIETY AND BLOOMING TIMES

@article{Heinrich1975BEEFA,
  title={BEE FLOWERS: A HYPOTHESIS ON FLOWER VARIETY AND BLOOMING TIMES},
  author={Bernd Heinrich},
  journal={Evolution},
  year={1975},
  volume={29}
}
In arctic (Kevan, 1972), temperate (Lovell, 1903), and tropical regions, the flowers of different species of plants in a given habitat at any one time usually exhibit a variety of colors, scents, morphologies, and blooming times. Bees are the primary pollinators of many of them (Baker and Hurd, 1968). Adaptations of given species of plants to specific pollinators (MMuller, 1881; Knuth, 1909; van der Pijl, 1961; van der Pijl and Dodson, 1966; Grant and Grant, 1965; Faegri and van der Pijl, 1971… Expand
POLLINATOR CHOICE AND STABILIZING SELECTION FOR FLOWER COLOR IN DELPHINIUM NELSONII
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CHANGES IN COROLLA COLOR AND OTHER FLORAL CHARACTERISTICS IN CRYPTANTHA HUMILIS (BORAGINACEAE): CUES TO DISCOURAGE POLLINATORS?
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Floral cues that discourage pollinators have not been fully evaluated for their possible benefits to either the plants or their pollinators; most interpretations of color changes are speculative and without experimental verification. Expand
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A model based on known patterns of flower placement and stolon growth patterns, coupled with estimates of pollen-deposition and floret-visitation patterns by bees, suggests that the number and length of stolon internodes affect successful pollination in Trifolium repens. Expand
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