BCG immunotherapy of bladder cancer: 20 years on

@article{Alexandroff1999BCGIO,
  title={BCG immunotherapy of bladder cancer: 20 years on},
  author={Anton B. Alexandroff and Andrew M. Jackson and Michael A. O'Donnell and Keith James},
  journal={The Lancet},
  year={1999},
  volume={353},
  pages={1689-1694}
}
Immunotherapy of Renal and Bladder Cancers
TLDR
Immunotherapy with Bacillus Calmette–Guerin (BCG) has become a first-line treatment in high-grade, nonmuscle, invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) and significantly improved the outcome in patients with bladder and renal cancer.
Molecular Pathogenesis of Bladder Cancer
TLDR
The most common variant of bladder cancer in Western countries is urothelial carcinoma (UCC), formerly known as “transitional cell carcinoma,” which has significant health costs and morbidity and has two distinct clinical presentations: muscle invasive (MIUC) and nonmuscle-invasive disease (NMIUC).
Molecular Characterization of Bladder Cancer Subtypes
TLDR
This thesis provides a broad overview of both clinical and molecular aspects of bladder cancer to further improve the understanding of the molecular biology of the disease.
Immunotherapy for bladder cancer
TLDR
The clinical aspects of BCG are discussed, including its role in reducing recurrence and progression, the optimal treatment regime, toxicity and, in light of new evidence, whether or not there is a superior BCG strain.
Predicting Disease Course in Bladder Cancer: STAG2 as a Prognostic Biomarker
TLDR
STAG2 is validated as a biomarker of both recurrence and progression in non-muscle invasive bladder cancer and the role of STAG2 in muscle-invasive disease is explored.
Possible disease remission in patient with invasive bladder cancer with D-fraction regimen
TLDR
An 87-year-old white male patient with invasive bladder cancer who received an unconventional oral regimen of D-fraction, the bioactive extract of Maitake mushroom (Grifola frondosa), following endoscopic transurethral resection of bladder tumor appears to be in remission, the first and only case report of possible disease remission in a bladder cancer patient after the two-year follow-up.
Medical Management of Patients with Refractory Carcinoma In Situ of the Bladder
TLDR
A variety of alternative immunological and chemotherapeutic agents have been developed in response to the limitations of BCG for patients with refractory CIS of the bladder, and valrubicin remains the only agent that is approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the specific indication of CIS ofThe bladder unresponsive to intravesical BCG.
BCG Immunotherapy for Bladder Carcinoma
TLDR
For the last 45 yrs Bacillus Calmette- Guerin therapy has remained first line intravesical immunotherapy for superficial bladder cancer, an outstanding example of successful immunotherapy.
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