BCG immunotherapy of bladder cancer: 20 years on

  title={BCG immunotherapy of bladder cancer: 20 years on},
  author={Anton B. Alexandroff and Andrew M. Jackson and Michael A. O'Donnell and Keith James},
  journal={The Lancet},
Immunotherapy of Renal and Bladder Cancers
Immunotherapy with Bacillus Calmette–Guerin (BCG) has become a first-line treatment in high-grade, nonmuscle, invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) and significantly improved the outcome in patients with bladder and renal cancer.
Molecular Pathogenesis of Bladder Cancer
The most common variant of bladder cancer in Western countries is urothelial carcinoma (UCC), formerly known as “transitional cell carcinoma,” which has significant health costs and morbidity and has two distinct clinical presentations: muscle invasive (MIUC) and nonmuscle-invasive disease (NMIUC).
Molecular Characterization of Bladder Cancer Subtypes
This thesis provides a broad overview of both clinical and molecular aspects of bladder cancer to further improve the understanding of the molecular biology of the disease.
Immunotherapy for bladder cancer
The clinical aspects of BCG are discussed, including its role in reducing recurrence and progression, the optimal treatment regime, toxicity and, in light of new evidence, whether or not there is a superior BCG strain.
Predicting Disease Course in Bladder Cancer: STAG2 as a Prognostic Biomarker
STAG2 is validated as a biomarker of both recurrence and progression in non-muscle invasive bladder cancer and the role of STAG2 in muscle-invasive disease is explored.
Possible disease remission in patient with invasive bladder cancer with D-fraction regimen
An 87-year-old white male patient with invasive bladder cancer who received an unconventional oral regimen of D-fraction, the bioactive extract of Maitake mushroom (Grifola frondosa), following endoscopic transurethral resection of bladder tumor appears to be in remission, the first and only case report of possible disease remission in a bladder cancer patient after the two-year follow-up.
Medical Management of Patients with Refractory Carcinoma In Situ of the Bladder
A variety of alternative immunological and chemotherapeutic agents have been developed in response to the limitations of BCG for patients with refractory CIS of the bladder, and valrubicin remains the only agent that is approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the specific indication of CIS ofThe bladder unresponsive to intravesical BCG.
BCG Immunotherapy for Bladder Carcinoma
For the last 45 yrs Bacillus Calmette- Guerin therapy has remained first line intravesical immunotherapy for superficial bladder cancer, an outstanding example of successful immunotherapy.


The epidemiology of bladder cancer. A second look
The authors conclude that the epidemiologic pattern of bladder cancer cannot be fully accounted for by cigarette smoking and occupational exposure and suggest a series of metabolic studies to assess the role of additional factors, such as nutrition.
Management of carcinoma in situ of the bladder: the case for surgical management.
Until the advent of biochemical predictors of unqualified reliability for the identification of the crucial time of invasion, radical cystectomy is recommended for cure of in situ carcinoma provided the patient is a reasonable surgical risk, is severely symptomatic, has histologic evidence of extension of the lesion into the vesical neck, urethra, or terminal ureter, and has either histologic or cytologic persistence of cancer after a 6 to 12 month course of intravesical chemotherapy.
Intravesical BCG: Current results, natural history and implicants for urothelial cancer prevention
  • H. Herr
  • Medicine
    Journal of cellular biochemistry. Supplement
  • 1992
Intense therapy directed at premalignant and early bladder lesions coupled with a chemoprevention strategy designed to protect the whole urothelium will be required to reverse a panurothelial tumor diathesis.
Prediction of response to treatment in superficial bladder carcinoma through pattern of interleukin-2 gene expression.
  • R. Kaempfer, L. Gerez, A. Shapiro
  • Medicine, Biology
    Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • 1996
IL-2 gene expression is essential for mounting an antitumor response in superficial bladder carcinoma and inducibility of IL-2 mRNA is an independent prognostic parameter and useful predictive indicator of remission versus relapse.
Expression of mage genes in transitional‐cell carcinomas of the urinary bladder
MAGE expression was more frequent in advanced tumor stages: 61% of the invasive tumors (stage ± T2) were positive for expression of at least one of the four genes, whereas only 28%, of the superficial tumors (stages Ta and Tl) expressed these genes.