B cells express intracellular but not surface receptors for testosterone and estradiol

@article{Benten2002BCE,
  title={B cells express intracellular but not surface receptors for testosterone and estradiol},
  author={W. Peter M. Benten and Christian Stephan and Frank Wunderlich},
  journal={Steroids},
  year={2002},
  volume={67},
  pages={647-654}
}

Estrogen augments the T cell-dependent but not the T-independent immune response

TLDR
The results provide the first evidence that estrogen enhances the TD but not the TI-2 response, and show that estrogen may have a direct impact on B and T cells by inducing rapid signaling events, such as Erk and AKT phosphorylation, cell-specific Ca2+ signal, and NFκB activation.

Immunomodulation by estrogen and estren

TLDR
The results show that the effects of estrogen on the immune system are mainly mediated via ERα, but signalling through ERβ is necessary for complete inhibitory effect on B lymphopoiesis.

A dynamic network of estrogen receptors in murine lymphocytes: fine‐tuning the immune response

TLDR
It is shown that in lymphocytes, mERs can signalize themselves, and upon ligation, they are able to coordinate translocation of other E2Rs to the PM, implying existence of a complex, dynamic network of at least seven ER forms in murine lymphocytes: cytoplasmic and membrane‐linked forms of ERα, ERβ, or GPR30 and a mER that can receive extracellular E2 signals.

Oestrogen receptor specificity in oestradiol‐mediated effects on B lymphopoiesis and immunoglobulin production in male mice

TLDR
Results clearly show that both ERα and ERβ are required for complete down‐regulation of B lymphopoiesis while only ERα is needed to up‐regulate immunoglobulin production in both bone marrow and spleen.

Localization of Estrogen Receptor in the Central Lymphoid Organs of Chickens during the Late Stage of Embryogenesis

TLDR
It is indicated that estrogen affects the differentiation of thymic and bursal lymphocytes, suggesting that the underlying role for estrogen in immune function is not fully understood.

Morphological relationships and leukocyte influence on steroid production in the epigonal organ‐ovary complex of the skate, Leucoraja erinacea

TLDR
In this study, the histological and vascular relationships of the EO and ovarian follicles of the little skate, Leucoraja erinacea, were assessed and provide a basis for further investigations of leukocyte secreted factors and cell contact modulation of follicular steroid production.

Influence of oestrogen receptor α and β on the immune system in aged female mice

Oestrogen has a dichotomous effect on the immune system. T and B lymphopoiesis in thymus and bone marrow is suppressed, whereas antibody production is stimulated by oestrogen. In this study the
...

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The testosterone responsiveness of murine splenic T cells in vitro as well as the presence of unconventional cell surface receptors for testosterone and classical intracellular AR are demonstrated, suggesting that the classical AR present in splenicT cells are not active in the genomic pathway.

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TLDR
It is demonstrated that GH3/B6 rat pituitary tumor cells contain a membrane ER (mER), and confocal scanning laser microscopy of cells labeled live with the anti‐peptide antibody further supports a membrane localization of ER, suggesting that mER may be structurally similar to iER.

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...