Azaspiracid Shellfish Poisoning: A Review on the Chemistry, Ecology, and Toxicology with an Emphasis on Human Health Impacts

@article{Twiner2008AzaspiracidSP,
  title={Azaspiracid Shellfish Poisoning: A Review on the Chemistry, Ecology, and Toxicology with an Emphasis on Human Health Impacts},
  author={Michael J. Twiner and Nils Rehmann and Philipp Hess and Gregory J. Doucette},
  journal={Marine Drugs},
  year={2008},
  volume={6},
  pages={39 - 72}
}
Azaspiracids (AZA) are polyether marine toxins that accumulate in various shellfish species and have been associated with severe gastrointestinal human intoxications since 1995. This toxin class has since been reported from several countries, including Morocco and much of western Europe. A regulatory limit of 160 microg AZA/kg whole shellfish flesh was established by the EU in order to protect human health; however, in some cases, AZA concentrations far exceed the action level. Herein we… CONTINUE READING