Axonal damage induced by cerebrospinal fluid from patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis

@article{Alczar2000AxonalDI,
  title={Axonal damage induced by cerebrospinal fluid from patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis},
  author={Alberto Alc{\'a}zar and Ignacio Regidor and Jaime Masju{\'a}n and Matilde Salinas and Jos{\'e} C. {\'A}lvarez-cerme{\~n}o},
  journal={Journal of Neuroimmunology},
  year={2000},
  volume={104},
  pages={58-67}
}

Disturbed Glucose Metabolism in Rat Neurons Exposed to Cerebrospinal Fluid Obtained from Multiple Sclerosis Subjects

TLDR
It is suggested that MS appears to be linked with metabolic deformity through hitherto unknown factors present in cerebrospinal fluid that may regulate axonal damage, remyelinate the axon and make functional recovery possible.

Bioenergetic Failure in Rat Oligodendrocyte Progenitor Cells Treated with Cerebrospinal Fluid Derived from Multiple Sclerosis Patients

TLDR
The findings revealed downregulated expression of genes involved in carbohydrate metabolism, and that glucose metabolism impairment and reduced ATP availability for cellular damage repair clearly differentiate more benign forms from the most aggressive forms and worst prognosis in MS patients.

Neuronal and BBB damage induced by sera from patients with secondary progressive multiple sclerosis.

TLDR
It is reported that the serum from patients with secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (SPMS) has a damaging effect on isolated neurons, suggesting that neuronal damaging in MS could be a primary event and not only secondary to myelin damage, as generally assumed.

Cerebrospinal fluid ceramides from patients with multiple sclerosis impair neuronal bioenergetics.

TLDR
The data suggest that C16:0 and C24:0 ceramides are enriched in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with multiple sclerosis and are sufficient to induce neuronal mitochondrial dysfunction and axonal damage.

Cryptic Axonal Antigens and Axonal Loss in Multiple Sclerosis

TLDR
Evidence that antibodies to axolemma-enriched fractions (AEF) isolated from CNS myelinated axons may play a role in axonal destruction is summarized and it is proposed that these AEF antigens are cryptic because they are shielded from immune surveillance in vivo via the tightly sealed paranodal loops of myelin.

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