Axon physiology.

@article{Debanne2011AxonP,
  title={Axon physiology.},
  author={Dominique Debanne and Emilie Campanac and Andrzej Bialowas and Edmond Carlier and Gisèle Alcaraz},
  journal={Physiological reviews},
  year={2011},
  volume={91 2},
  pages={
          555-602
        }
}
Axons are generally considered as reliable transmission cables in which stable propagation occurs once an action potential is generated. Axon dysfunction occupies a central position in many inherited and acquired neurological disorders that affect both peripheral and central neurons. Recent findings suggest that the functional and computational repertoire of the axon is much richer than traditionally thought. Beyond classical axonal propagation, intrinsic voltage-gated ionic currents together… 
Excitability tuning of axons in the central nervous system
TLDR
Recent understandings of axon physiology in the mammalian CNS are summarized due to progress in the subcellular recording techniques which allow direct recordings from the axonal membranes, with emphasis on the hippocampal mossy fibers as a representative en passant axons typical for cortical axons.
Subcellular control of membrane excitability in the axon
TLDR
Recent advances in the physiological role of ion channels within the diverse landscape of the axon and presynaptic terminals are reviewed.
Excitability Tuning of Axons by Afterdepolarization
  • H. Kamiya
  • Chemistry, Medicine
    Front. Cell. Neurosci.
  • 2019
TLDR
The mechanisms as well as the functional significance of ADP in fine-scale modulation of axonal spike signaling in the CNS, with special reference to hippocampal mossy fibers, one of the best-studied CNS axons, are focused on.
Axon-Carrying Dendrites Convey Privileged Synaptic Input in Hippocampal Neurons
TLDR
It is found that axons of hippocampal pyramidal cells frequently derive from a basal dendrite rather than from the soma, and axon-carrying dendrites constitute a privileged channel for excitatory synaptic input in a subset of cortical pyramsidal cells.
Activity-dependent mismatch between axo-axonic synapses and the axon initial segment controls neuronal output
TLDR
Whether the AIS is capable of undergoing structural plasticity in rat hippocampal organotypic slices, which retain the diversity of neuronal cell types present at postnatal ages, is investigated and found that it allows the GABAergic synapses to strongly oppose action potential generation, and thus downregulate pyramidal cell excitability.
The role of axonal Kv1 channels in CA3 pyramidal cell excitability
TLDR
Kv1 channels located in the axon proper greatly participate in intrinsic excitability of CA3 pyramidal neurons, stressing the importance of the axonal compartment in the regulation of intrinsic neuronal excitability.
Neuronal cultures show bidirectional axonal conduction with antidromic action potentials depolarizing the soma
TLDR
It is shown that EAPs and antidromic conduction can occur spontaneously, and after distal axotomy or physiological changes in the axon biochemical environment, and have important implications for the study of neuronal function in vitro, reshaping the understanding on how information flows in neuronal cultures.
Modeling Analysis of Axonal After Potential at Hippocampal Mossy Fibers
  • H. Kamiya
  • Medicine, Chemistry
    Front. Cell. Neurosci.
  • 2019
TLDR
It is suggested that the capacitive component reflecting passive propagation of upstream action potential substantially contributes to the slow time course of axonal after potential, although voltage-dependent K+ current provided a characteristic voltage dependency of after potential waveform.
Tracking axonal action potential propagation on a high-density microelectrode array across hundreds of sites.
TLDR
Methods to electrically visualize action potential propagation and network topology in cortical neurons grown over custom arrays, which contain 11,011 microelectrodes and are fabricated using complementary metal oxide semiconductor technology are reported.
Signal Processing in the Axon Initial Segment
TLDR
Recent data on the physiology of the axon initial segment indicate that the role of the AIS is far richer than originally thought, leading to the idea that it represents a dynamic signal processing unit within neurons, regulating the integration of synaptic inputs, intrinsic excitability, and transmitter release.
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TLDR
This review discusses a novel form of non-synaptic plasticity that involves voltage-gated K+ conductances in CA3 pyramidal cell axons and shows that axons cannot only be considered as a simple structure that transmit reliably the action potential from the cell body to the nerve terminals.
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TLDR
This review considers recent evidence for the role of intrinsic voltage-gated conductances together with the intrinsic geometrical properties of the axon in the short-term dynamics of neural communication.
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TLDR
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TLDR
The authors are starting to understand better how specific channels and other cellular properties shape action potential threshold, waveform, and timing: key elements contributing to downstream transmitter release.
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TLDR
A highly localized role of axonal Kv1 potassium channels in shaping the action potential waveform in the axon initial segment of layer 5 pyramidal neurons independent of the soma is shown.
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TLDR
In addition to its main role in AP initiation, the new findings suggest that the AIS is also a site of complex AP modulation by specific types of ion channels localized to this axonal domain.
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TLDR
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TLDR
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TLDR
Experiments using simultaneous patch-pipette recordings show that the site of action potential initiation is in the axon, even when synaptic activation is powerful enough to elicit dendritic electrogenesis, and that following initiation, action potentials actively backpropagate into the dendrites of many neuronal types, providing a retrograde signal of neuronal output to thedendritic tree.
Single‐axon action potentials in the rat hippocampal cortex
TLDR
The observations of propagation reliability to a much longer distance and higher frequency domain than previously reported are extended, and a high safety factor for action potential propagation along thin, varicose axons is suggested.
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