Axon formation: fate versus growth

@article{Jiang2005AxonFF,
  title={Axon formation: fate versus growth},
  author={Hui Jiang and Yi Rao},
  journal={Nature Neuroscience},
  year={2005},
  volume={8},
  pages={544-546}
}
  • Hui Jiang, Y. Rao
  • Published 1 May 2005
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • Nature Neuroscience
Actin destabilization is an early step in specifying axon identity in young neurons. A new paper proposes a molecular mechanism for this process, but the data can also be explained by making a distinction between axon specification and axon growth. 
Polarity proteins in axon specification and synaptogenesis.
TLDR
The role of conserved protein complexes, which have been shown to regulate polarity in such diverse systems as the C. elegans zygote and mammalian epithelia, are considered, in axon specification and synaptogenesis is considered.
JNK gives axons a second chance.
TLDR
One of the main characteristics of neurons is their highly structural and functional polarization and the molecular mechanisms regulating neuronal polarity have only recently been discovered.
Regulators of Rho GTPases in Neuronal Development
TLDR
The role of regulators of the Rac1 GTPase in axon development is discussed and the importance of both actin and microtubule remodeling in this process is highlighted.
The cytoskeleton as a modulator of tension driven axon elongation
TLDR
This review will discuss in a critical perspective the current knowledge on the mechanisms guiding axon growth following synaptogenesis, with a particular focus on the putative role played by the axonal cytoskeleton.
The selective translocation of the molecular motor Kinesin-1 during the development of neuronal polarity in culture
Chapter 1 : Introduction to the Dissertation Organization of Transport in Neurons: Open Questions Experimental Approach Organization of the Dissertation Chapter 2: Review of the Literature Kinesin
Establishing Neuronal Polarity with Environmental and Intrinsic Mechanisms
TLDR
The current understanding of developmental cues and cell biological mechanisms that establish polarity in newborn neurons are reviewed, synthesizing information from vertebrate and invertebrate model systems.
Actin-based protrusions lead microtubules during stereotyped axon initiation in spinal neurons in vivo
TLDR
It is shown that the position of axon initiation in embryonic zebrafish spinal neurons is extremely consistent across neuronal sub-types and what mechanisms may regulate axon positioning in vivo is investigated, which found that microtubule organising centres are located distant from the site of ax on in contrast to that observed in vitro.
Role of the Cytoskeleton and Membrane Trafficking in Axon–Dendrite Morphogenesis
TLDR
In this chapter, intrinsic dynamic changes in actin and microtubule organization and the involved players that are crucial to neuronal polarization are discussed.
Activated c-Jun N-Terminal Kinase Is Required for Axon Formation
TLDR
It is demonstrated that activated JNK is required for axonogenesis but not formation of minor processes or development of dendrites.
Neuronal polarization: The cytoskeleton leads the way
TLDR
This review will present the recent advances on the role of the microtubules and the actin cytoskeleton during neuronal polarization and pinpoint the upcoming challenges to gain a better understanding of neuronal polarization on a fundamental intracellular level.
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References

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TLDR
Local instability of the actin network restricted to a single growth cone is a physiological signal specifying neuronal polarization.
Asymmetric membrane ganglioside sialidase activity specifies axonal fate
TLDR
It is shown that plasma membrane ganglioside sialidase (PMGS) asymmetrically accumulates at the tip of one neurite of the unpolarized rat neuron, inducing actin instability, and spatial restriction of an actin-regulating molecular machinery before polarization is enough to determine axonal fate.
The sequential activity of the GTPases Rap1B and Cdc42 determines neuronal polarity
TLDR
It is found that localization of the GTPase Rap1B to the tip of a single neurite is a decisive step in determining which neurite becomes the axon in cultured rat hippocampal neurons.
RhoA/ROCK regulation of neuritogenesis via profilin IIa–mediated control of actin stability
TLDR
It is proposed that RhoA/ROCK/PIIa-mediated regulation of actin stability, shown to be essential for neuritogenesis, may constitute a central mechanism throughout neuronal differentiation.
Mechanical tension can specify axonal fate in hippocampal neurons
TLDR
Experimental tension applied to minor processes of cultured hippocampal neurons produced extensions that demonstrated axonal character, regardless of the presence of an existing axon, which suggests that tension rather than the achievement of a critical neurite length determined axonal specification.
Both the Establishment and the Maintenance of Neuronal Polarity Require Active Mechanisms Critical Roles of GSK-3β and Its Upstream Regulators
TLDR
The results demonstrate that there are active mechanisms for maintaining as well as establishing neuronal polarity, indicate that GSK-3beta relays signaling from Akt and PTEN to play critical roles in neuronalPolarity, and suggest that application of G SK3beta inhibitors can be a novel approach to promote generation of new axons after neural injuries.
APC and GSK-3β Are Involved in mPar3 Targeting to the Nascent Axon and Establishment of Neuronal Polarity
TLDR
It is suggested that mPar3 is polarized in developing neurons through APC- and kinesin-mediated transport to the plus ends of rapidly growing microtubules at the nascent axon tip, a process that involves a spatially regulated GSK-3beta activity.
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TLDR
It is suggested that PAR-3 is transported to the distal tip of the axon by KIF3A and that the proper localization of PAR-1 is required to establish neuronal polarity, and that aPKC can associate with Kif3A through its interaction withPAR-3.
CRMP-2 induces axons in cultured hippocampal neurons
TLDR
It is found that CRMP-2/TOAD-64/Ulip2/DRP-2 (refs. 2–4) level was higher in growing axons of cultured hippocampal neurons, that overexpression of CR MP-2 in the cells led to the formation of supernumerary axons and that expression of truncated CRMP -2 mutants suppressed theformation of primary axon in a dominant-negative manner.
Mammalian SAD Kinases Are Required for Neuronal Polarization
TLDR
SAD-A and SAD-B, mammalian orthologs of a kinase needed for presynaptic differentiation in Caenorhabditis elegans, are shown to provide entry points for unraveling signaling mechanisms that polarize neurons.
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