Over 30,000 ever-married women in 13 (out of 25) Indian states where HIV is thought to be highly prevalent-Maharashtra, West Bengal, Tamil Nadu, and ten other less populous states-were surveyed about their awareness and knowledge of AIDS. Only one in six women had heard of AIDS. Among those, knowledge about transmission and prevention is poor. Multivariate analyses reveal that rural, poorly educated, and poor women are the least likely to be AIDS-aware and if aware, have the poorest understanding of the syndrome. Despite low levels of awareness and knowledge, we find a strong positive association between AIDS awareness and knowledge and condom use.