Avoparcin used as a growth promoter is associated with the occurrence of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium on Danish poultry and pig farms.

  title={Avoparcin used as a growth promoter is associated with the occurrence of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium on Danish poultry and pig farms.},
  author={Flemming Bager and Mogens Madsen and J Christensen and Frank M. Aarestrup},
  journal={Preventive veterinary medicine},
  volume={31 1-2},

Glycopeptide resistance in Enterococcus faecium from broilers and pigs following discontinued use of avoparcin.

In pigs, the antimicrobials most commonly used favored co-selection of glycopeptide resistant strains of E. faecium while in broilers the antim antibiotics most widely used selected for glycopeptic-susceptible strains, showing that intervention to reduce antimicrobial resistance may not always be effective and preventing resistance problems therefore becomes essential.

Association between the use of avilamycin for growth promotion and the occurrence of resistance among Enterococcus faecium from broilers: epidemiological study and changes over time.

The national monitoring program showed a decrease in the occurrence of resistance following a decreased use of avilamycin in Denmark, and the epidemiological study showed a statistically significant association between the use of bird flu vaccine for growth promotion and the occurrenceof avILamycin-resistant E. faecium on broiler farms.

Persistence of vanA-type Enterococcus faecium in Korean livestock after ban on avoparcin.

All the 61 VRE isolates were vanA-type Enterococcus faecium expressing a high-level resistance to vancomycin, and showed resistance to teicoplanin as well except two poultry isolates.

Effect of tylosin used as a growth promoter on the occurrence of macrolide-resistant enterococci and staphylococci in pigs.

A clear effect on resistance occurrence was demonstrated, not only in intestinal bacteria, but also on bacteria sampled from the skin.

Characterization of vancomycin-resistant enterococci isolated from fecal samples of ostriches by molecular methods.

Fecal samples of ostriches represent a reservoir of vanA-containing enterococci that could be transmitted to humans through the food chain and the mechanism of resistance to vancomycin and to other antibiotics and the presence of the esp and hyl virulence genes were determined by polymerase chain reaction and sequencing.

Predominance of vanA Genotype among Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus Isolates from Poultry and Swine in Costa Rica

An evident predominance of the vanA determinant among vancomycin-resistant enterococcal species from poultry and swine, but not from cattle, was observed and was similar to the situation in European countries before avoparcin was forbidden.

Differences in the Occurrence of Two Base Pair Variants of Tn1546 from Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci from Humans, Pigs, and Poultry

  • L. Jensen
  • Biology, Medicine
    Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
  • 1998
The present study showed that VREF isolates from pigs, poultry, and humans could be divided according to base pair variation in the vanX gene at position 8234 (G or T type).

Species distribution and resistance phenotypes of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus isolated from pigs in Pulau Pinang, Malaysia.

Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) are important nosocomial pathogens. The extensive use of avoparcin as a growth promoter in poultry and pigs is the hypothesized factor for the emergence of

Persistence of Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci in New Zealand Broilers after Discontinuation of Avoparcin Use

Large amounts of tylosin, zinc-bacitracin, and avilamycin are currently used as prophylactics in New Zealand broiler production, and data demonstrate that vancomycin-resistant E. faecalis persists in the absence and presence of vancomYcin-selective pressure, thus explaining the dominance of this VRE clone even in the presence of avoparcin.



The Effect of Dietary Avoparcin on the Antibiotic Resistance Patterns of Enteric and Pharyngeal Bacteria Isolated from Broiler Chickens

  • J. R. Walton
  • Medicine, Biology
    Zentralblatt fur Veterinarmedizin. Reihe B. Journal of veterinary medicine. Series B
  • 1978
Examination of multi‐replicate samples indicated wide fluctuations in both total bacterial count and prevalence of antimicrobial resistance during the period of the experiment, and evidence was obtained of instability of induced avoparcin resistance in faecal streptococci.

vanA-mediated high-level glycopeptide resistance in Enterococcus faecium from animal husbandry.

Genomic DNA fragment patterns of strains from animal sources were different from each other and also from those of strains isolated in hospitals and from sewage treatment plants, suggesting the dissemination of the vanA determinant among different enterococcal strains of distinct ecological origin.

Evidence for the genetic unrelatedness of nosocomial vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium strains in a pediatric hospital

An epidemiological investigation on 16 nosocomial vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium strains isolated from 15 patients in four different wards of a children's hospital over a period of 17 months shows the genetic unrelatedness of the Nosocomial strains studied and excludes patient-to-patient strain transmission either in the same ward or between wards.

Faecal carriage and nosocomial spread of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium.

Ribotyping showed there to be a number of clones of VRE carried by patients and that one of these clones was especially prevalent and has been responsible for the outbreak of infection in the renal unit.

The effect of growth-promoting antibiotics on the faecal enterococci of healthy young chickens.

Small groups of chickens were given feed containing either avoparcin, nitrovin, virginiamycin or zinc bacitracin from the day of their purchase as day-olds to study the incidence of resistance to therapeutic antibiotics among the enterococcal population as a whole.

Increasing resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics among clinical isolates of Enterococcus faecium: a 22-year review at one institution

Changes in the antibiotic resistance of E. faecium emphasize the importance of identifying this species in patients with serious enterococcal infections and the necessity of assessing its susceptibility to both beta-lactams and aminoglycosides if effective therapy is to be identified.

Farm animals as a putative reservoir for vancomycin-resistant enterococcal infection in man.

The emergence of VRE in hospital patients may reflect selection of these organisms in the hospital environment by antibiotic usage from which nosocomial spread might occur, and suggests that animals may serve as a reservoir of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE), which may enter the human food chain.

Resistance to vancomycin and teicoplanin: an emerging clinical problem

The selective advantage accorded to glycopeptide-resistant bacteria and the observation that high-level resistance in enterococci is transferable suggest that such resistance may be expected to increase in incidence.

Prevalence of antibiotic‐resistant Escherichia coli in Danish pigs and cattle

The spectrum of resistance markers among Danish piglets and calves had increased through all three investigations and resistance to chlorampshenicol was still found to be considerable 10 years after the withdrawal of chloramphenicol as a therapeutic drug for farm animals in Denmark in 1978.

Susceptibility of fecal streptococci of poultry origin to nine growth-promoting agents

The minimal inhibitory concentrations of nine growth-promoting agents were determined by an agar-dilution method against 66 bile-tolerant streptococcal strains isolated from the ceca of 52 chickens on 19 farms and high percentages of acquired resistance were noted in all groups.