Avoiding the void: cell-to-cell spread of human viruses

@article{Sattentau2008AvoidingTV,
  title={Avoiding the void: cell-to-cell spread of human viruses},
  author={Quentin J. Sattentau},
  journal={Nature Reviews Microbiology},
  year={2008},
  volume={6},
  pages={815-826}
}
  • Q. Sattentau
  • Published 1 November 2008
  • Biology
  • Nature Reviews Microbiology
The initial stages of animal virus infection are generally described as the binding of free virions to permissive target cells followed by entry and replication. Although this route of infection is undoubtedly important, many viruses that are pathogenic for humans, including HIV-1, herpes simplex virus and measles, can also move between cells without diffusing through the extracellular environment. Cell-to-cell spread not only facilitates rapid viral dissemination, but may also promote immune… 

Cell-to-Cell Spread of Retroviruses

TLDR
A review of recent advances in the cellular and molecular basis of virological synapse-mediated retroviral cell-to-cell spread with emphasis on areas in which work still needs to be done.

Cell-to-Cell Transmission of HIV

TLDR
How cell–cell contact modifies the classical life cycle of cell-free HIV in the donor as well as in the target cell is discussed, and how HIV cell-to-cell transmission can be more resistant to restriction factors, neutralizing antibodies, and anti-retroviral therapies may also affect the pathogenesis of HIV/AIDS.

The direct passage of animal viruses between cells.

Cell-to-cell HIV-1 spread and its implications for immune evasion

TLDR
The re-emergence of HIV-1 cell–cell spread as a highly efficient mechanism for viral dissemination in vitro has raised the possibility that this finding may be central to viral spread in vivo and may strongly influence pathogenesis.

Virus Cell-to-Cell Transmission

TLDR
Support for the proposed viral cell-to-cell spreading model is presented, the ability of viruses to utilize and manipulate cell adhesion molecules is illustrated, and the mechanism and driving forces of directional spreading are discussed.

Macrophage Cell-Cell Interactions Promoting HIV-1 Infection

TLDR
The current state of the field concerning the cell-cell spread of HIV-1 to and from macrophages is described, mechanisms are discussed, and potential in vivo relevance is highlighted.

Direct cell-to-cell transmission of respiratory viruses: The fast lanes

TLDR
Direct cell-to-cell spread of infections has several advantages: efficiency: genomic cargo is delivered directly to cells rather than being randomly released into the environment, speed: appropriation of cellular protein trafficking infrastructure allows faster spread within tissues, and barrier avoidance.

Release of HSV-1 Cell-Free Virions: Mechanisms, Regulation, and Likely Role in Human-Human Transmission

TLDR
It is argued that HSV-1 cell-free release is likely to be tightly regulated in vivo, and hypothesize that this process is generally suppressed as the virus replicates within the body, but activated to high levels at sites of viral reactivation in order to promote efficient transmission of HSv-1 to new human hosts.

Kinetics of cell-to-cell spread of viruses

TLDR
This work presents the first generic kinetic model describing intracellular viral kinetics in combination with this mode of spread of virions, and shows the specifics of the propagation of the infection front in this case.

Cell-to-cell transmission of viruses.

...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 162 REFERENCES

Spread of HTLV-I Between Lymphocytes by Virus-Induced Polarization of the Cytoskeleton

TLDR
It is shown that cell contact rapidly induces polarization of the cytoskeleton of the infected cell to the cell-cell junction, and HTLV-I core (Gag protein) complexes and the HT LVI genome accumulate at thecell junction and are then transferred to the uninfected cell.

Interactions of human retroviruses with the host cell cytoskeleton.

Virus Infection of Polarized Epithelial Cells

Dangerous liaisons at the virological synapse.

TLDR
Deciphering the molecular mechanisms of VS formation provides a fascinating insight into how pathogens subvert immune cell communication programs and achieve viral spread.

Efficient HIV-1 transmission from macrophages to T cells across transient virological synapses.

TLDR
It is reported that human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) rapidly spread HIV-1 to autologous CD4(+) T cells resulting in productive infection.

Directed Egress of Animal Viruses Promotes Cell-to-Cell Spread

TLDR
Direct cell-to-cell spread of animal viruses in solid tissues is a complex, poorly understood process, specifically at sites of cell-cell contact, moving across epithelial cell or neuronal contact.

Retroviral Spread by Induction of Virological Synapses

TLDR
This review summarises the current knowledge concerning virological synapses induced by retroviruses and indicates that cell–cell viral dissemination appears to function by triggering existing cellular pathways involved in antigen presentation and T‐cell communication.

Predominant Mode of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Transfer between T Cells Is Mediated by Sustained Env-Dependent Neutralization-Resistant Virological Synapses

TLDR
The polarized T-cell morphology, Env-CD4 coordinated adhesion, and viral transfer from HIV-infected to uninfected cells suggest that VS allows HIV-1 to evade antibody neutralization and to disseminate efficiently.

Virus Entry: Open Sesame

Inefficient Human Immunodeficiency Virus Replication in Mobile Lymphocytes

TLDR
Results indicate that cell-to-cell transfer is the predominant mode of HIV spread and help to explain why this virus replicates so efficiently in lymphoid organs.
...