Avoiding bias from aggregate measures of exposure.

  title={Avoiding bias from aggregate measures of exposure.},
  author={Stephen W. Duffy and H{\aa}kan Jonsson and Olorunsola F. Agbaje and Nora Pashayan and Rhian Gabe},
  journal={Journal of epidemiology and community health},
  volume={61 5},
BACKGROUND Sometimes in descriptive epidemiology or in the evaluation of a health intervention policy change, proportions exposed to a risk factor or to an intervention are used as explanatory variables in log-linear regressions for disease incidence or mortality. AIM To demonstrate how estimates from such models can be substantially inaccurate as estimates of the effect of the risk factor or intervention at individual level. To show how the individual level effect can be correctly estimated… CONTINUE READING

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