99mTc-glucarate imaging for the early detection of infarct in partially reperfused canine myocardium
BACKGROUND Similar to other 99mTc-based infarct-avid agents, 99mTc-glucarate localizes in myocardial infarcts. Whether severely ischemic viable myocytes sequester 99mTc-glucarate is uncertain. To assess the infarct specificity, in vitro and in vivo studies were performed. METHODS AND RESULTS H9C2 embryonic rat cardiocytes cultured under normoxia (N) or hypoxia (H) for 24 hours in 7.5 muCi 99mTc-glucarate were compared with necrotic cardiocytes. Mean H/N ratio (3.0 +/- 0.004, mean +/- SD) was significantly less than that of the necrotic/N ratio (39.9 +/- 6.5, p < 0.01). Reperfused myocardial infarction (MI) in 4 dogs confirmed by 201Tl (0.5 to 1.0 mCi) scintigraphy were imaged serially with simultaneously injected mixture of 99mTc-glucarate and 111In-antimyosin Fab. Infarcts were detected scintigraphically within 4 to 10 minutes with 99mTc-glucarate. 111In-antimyosin required more than 1 hour. Myocardial distribution at 5 hours showed a direct correlation between 99mTc-glucarate and 111In-antimyosin uptake (r = 0.99, p < 0.0001). Both 99mTc-glucarate (r = -0.777, p < 0.0001) and 111In-antimyosin (r = -0.775, p < 0.0001) were inversely related to 201Tl distribution. CONCLUSIONS The near perfect correlation between 99mTc-glucarate and 111In-antimyosin uptake (r = 0.99) in reperfused canine MI and the insignificant glucarate uptake by viable cardiocytes in vitro attest to the avidity of 99mTc-glucarate for the necrotic myocardium and favor its use as a specific early marker of myocyte necrosis in acute MI.