Aviator's astragalus.

@article{Coltart1952AviatorsA,
  title={Aviator's astragalus.},
  author={W. D. Coltart},
  journal={The Journal of bone and joint surgery. British volume},
  year={1952},
  volume={34-B 4},
  pages={
          545-66
        }
}
  • W. D. Coltart
  • Published 1 November 1952
  • Medicine
  • The Journal of bone and joint surgery. British volume
1. Although fractures and dislocations of the talus have been described since 1608 the rarity of the more severe and complicated injuries has meant a dearth of accurate descriptions or classification in the literature. 2. A series of 228 injuries of the talus occurring in members of the Royal Air Force between 1940 and 1943 has been reviewed. 3. A simple but comprehensive classification of injuries of the talus is presented, together with a review of the pathological anatomy, clinical features… 

Major injuries of the talus.

The prognosis for simple fractures of the head, neck or body was good, as was that for dislocations of the midtarsal and peritalar joints and for fracture-dislocations of the neck and body, and the late results were better than have been previously described.

The Management of Fractures and Dislocations of the Talus

Fractures of the talus, although rare injuries, can lead to serious disability, which may arise either as a result of the injury itself or its management, and injudicious surgery in combination with such a soft-tissue injury may lead to devastating sepsis with severe disability or even amputation the eventual outcome.

Transcalcaneal Talonavicular Dislocation

Patients who do not lose the leg as a result of uncontrolled infection should be counseled to expect severe functional limitations and/or chronic pain.

Classifications in Brief: The Hawkins Classification for Talus Fractures

Treatment strategies for vertical fractures of the talar neck ranged from nonoperative management to urgent open reduction internal fixation, bone graft augmentation, fusion of the dorsal talus to the distal tibia, and even complete talectomy, but the incidence of avascular necrosis (AVN) was not noted and the importance of early, anatomic reduction of these injuries was noted.

SURGICAL FIXATIION OF TALAR FRACTURES - OUR EXPERIENCE

Most of the fractures of the talus should be treated with reduction and internal fixation to reduce the complications and development of Aseptic necrosis and pain the joint are independent of method of treatment and are dependent on the initial displacement of the fragments.

Talus Fractures: Evaluation and Treatment

Operative treatment should, therefore, be considered for all displaced fractures, and prompt and accurate reduction minimizes their incidence and severity.

Fracture of the talus

It is concluded that as a rule the talar injury is not isolated, but associated with a more extensive regional injury and that a supination force is the decisive factor causing a talar injuries.

Dome fracture of the talus. A report of ten cases.

The injury is most commonly seen in the second and third decades of life, and with the exception of the rare anterior dome fracture, results from an inversion injury of the ankle.

Operative treatment of displaced talus fractures.

Forty-one severe talar fractures were treated operatively, and it was suggested that fusion may be the indicated method of treatment in these severe injuries.

Talar Neck Fractures

Results suggest improved maintenance of reduction, decreased time to union, and a better end result in talar neck fractures.
...

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After discussing the supposition that such findings might be the product of an optical illusion, associated with degenerative changes caused by the malady, the suggestion is tentatively put forward that they may be due to the presence in the tissues of a living agent, cause of the disease.

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UNTIL the recent discovery of chromosomin1, the histones (and protamines) were regarded as the typical proteins of cell nuclei, a view which was fairly well founded as regards fish spermatozoa2, but

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A CONNEXION between the mode of action of carcinogenic and of polyploidogenic reagents has frequently been postulated1,2, but the crucial test of the induction of polyploidy in plants by a typical