Aviation, apartheid and sanctions: Air transport to and from South Africa, 1945–1989

  title={Aviation, apartheid and sanctions: Air transport to and from South Africa, 1945–1989},
  author={Gordon Pirie},
  • G. Pirie
  • Published 1 November 1990
  • History
  • GeoJournal
The geography of air transport to and from South Africa has been shaped powerfully by the world map of anti-apartheid, sanctions-keeping nations which close their airspace to the Republic's state-owned airline. Re-routering, involving notably the offshore west-African link to Europe, revocation of foreign landing rights and a shrinking airline network have resulted. The economic dependence of the Republic's southern African neighbours on their political adversary has dissuaded them from joining… 

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