Avian navigation: from historical to modern concepts

@article{Wiltschko2003AvianNF,
  title={Avian navigation: from historical to modern concepts},
  author={Roswitha Wiltschko and Wolfgang Wiltschko},
  journal={Animal Behaviour},
  year={2003},
  volume={65},
  pages={257-272}
}
Studies on avian navigation began at the end of the 19th century with testing various hypotheses, followed by large-scale displacement experiments to assess the capacity of the birds' navigational abilities. In the 1950s, the first theoretical concepts were published. Kramer proposed his ‘Map-and-Compass’ model, assuming that birds establish the direction to a distant goal with the help of an external reference, a compass. The model describes homing as a two-step process, with the first step… 

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