Avian Extinction and Mammalian Introductions on Oceanic Islands

@article{Blackburn2004AvianEA,
  title={Avian Extinction and Mammalian Introductions on Oceanic Islands},
  author={Tim M. Blackburn and Phillip Cassey and Richard P. Duncan and Karl L. Evans and Kevin J. Gaston},
  journal={Science},
  year={2004},
  volume={305},
  pages={1955 - 1958}
}
The arrival of humans on oceanic islands has precipitated a wave of extinctions among the islands' native birds. Nevertheless, the magnitude of this extinction event varies markedly between avifaunas. We show that the probability that a bird species has been extirpated from each of 220 oceanic islands is positively correlated with the number of exotic predatory mammal species established on those islands after European colonization and that the effect of these predators is greater on island… 
FUNCTIONAL DIVERSITY OF MAMMALIAN PREDATORS AND EXTINCTION IN ISLAND BIRDS
The probability of a bird species going extinct on oceanic islands in the period since European colonization is predicted by the number of introduced predatory mammal species, but the exact mechanism
Causes of exotic bird establishment across oceanic islands
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These analyses demonstrate the primary importance of introduction effort for avian establishment success across regions, and reveal a strong negative interaction across regions between establishment success and predation; exotic birds are more likely to fail on islands with species-rich mammalian predator assemblages.
Extinctions and threats to avifaunas on oceanic islands: Tests of influences of human populations and the filter effect
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The activities of human populations, including mammalian predators they introduced, have likely resulted in a greater number of bird extinctions on these islands, and producing a significant filter effect, wherein islands with larger human populations now have fewer threatened species.
ORIGINAL ARTICLE: The biogeography of avian extinctions on oceanic islands
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The multiple influences of physical and biotic factors on past extinctions can be revealed through modelling the causal influences ofphysical attributes of islands on biological characteristics, and the causal influencing of both physical and biological characteristics on extinctions.
Causes of exotic bird establishment
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These analyses demonstrate the primary importance of introduction effort for avian establishment success across regions, and reveal a strong negative interaction across regions between establishment success and predation; exotic birds are more likely to fail on islands with species-rich mammalian predator assemblages.
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The largest extinction event in the Holocene occurred on Pacific islands, where Late Quaternary fossils reveal the loss of thousands of bird populations following human colonization of the region, and a Bayesian mark-recapture approach is used to model gaps in the fossil record and quantify losses of nonpasserine landbirds.
Current status of alien vertebrates in the Galápagos Islands: invasion history, distribution, and potential impacts
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The current distribution of alien vertebrates in the Galápagos Islands, their impacts on native species, and management efforts aimed atAlien vertebrates are reviewed.
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Data on the occurrence of exotic bird species across oceanic islands worldwide is used to demonstrate an alternative and previously untested hypothesis that these distributional patterns are a simple consequence of where humans have released such species, and hence of the number of species released.
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Differences in species–area relationships, nestedness, and occupancy of 9 species of native land birds between island assemblages with and without invasive Norway rats in the Falkland Archipelago are investigated.
Development in the Sea of Cortés Calls for Mitigation
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Recommendations are made to try to prevent the extinction of species at risk in the seas of northwestern Mexico, which have the largest number of insular endemic species in North America.
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