Avian Extinction and Mammalian Introductions on Oceanic Islands

  title={Avian Extinction and Mammalian Introductions on Oceanic Islands},
  author={Tim M. Blackburn and Phillip Cassey and Richard P. Duncan and Karl L. Evans and Kevin J. Gaston},
  pages={1955 - 1958}
The arrival of humans on oceanic islands has precipitated a wave of extinctions among the islands' native birds. Nevertheless, the magnitude of this extinction event varies markedly between avifaunas. We show that the probability that a bird species has been extirpated from each of 220 oceanic islands is positively correlated with the number of exotic predatory mammal species established on those islands after European colonization and that the effect of these predators is greater on island… 

Response to Comment on "Avian Extinction and Mammalian Introductions on Oceanic Islands"

Extinction and Mammalian Introductions on Oceanic Islands’’ We previously reported a positive correlation between the number of mammalian predator species established by Europeans on 220 islands and


The probability of a bird species going extinct on oceanic islands in the period since European colonization is predicted by the number of introduced predatory mammal species, but the exact mechanism

Causes of exotic bird establishment across oceanic islands

These analyses demonstrate the primary importance of introduction effort for avian establishment success across regions, and reveal a strong negative interaction across regions between establishment success and predation; exotic birds are more likely to fail on islands with species-rich mammalian predator assemblages.

Extinctions and threats to avifaunas on oceanic islands: Tests of influences of human populations and the filter effect

The activities of human populations, including mammalian predators they introduced, have likely resulted in a greater number of bird extinctions on these islands, and producing a significant filter effect, wherein islands with larger human populations now have fewer threatened species.

Causes of exotic bird establishment

These analyses demonstrate the primary importance of introduction effort for avian establishment success across regions, and reveal a strong negative interaction across regions between establishment success and predation; exotic birds are more likely to fail on islands with species-rich mammalian predator assemblages.

Magnitude and variation of prehistoric bird extinctions in the Pacific

The largest extinction event in the Holocene occurred on Pacific islands, where Late Quaternary fossils reveal the loss of thousands of bird populations following human colonization of the region, and a Bayesian mark-recapture approach is used to model gaps in the fossil record and quantify losses of nonpasserine landbirds.

The island biogeography of exotic bird species

Data on the occurrence of exotic bird species across oceanic islands worldwide is used to demonstrate an alternative and previously untested hypothesis that these distributional patterns are a simple consequence of where humans have released such species, and hence of the number of species released.

Development in the Sea of Cortés Calls for Mitigation

Recommendations are made to try to prevent the extinction of species at risk in the seas of northwestern Mexico, which have the largest number of insular endemic species in North America.

Species invasions and extinction: The future of native biodiversity on islands

  • D. SaxS. Gaines
  • Environmental Science
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
  • 2008
It is shown that the number of naturalized plant species has increased linearly over time on many individual islands, and the mean ratio of naturalization to native plant species across islands has changed steadily for nearly two centuries, suggesting that many more species will become naturalized on islands in the future.

Hyper abundant mesopredators and bird extinction in an Atlantic forest island

The negative effects of mesopredator mammals on bird richness at Anchieta Island, an 826 ha offshore island in the coast of Brazil, are examined to suggest that birds within these two nest types are under-represented on AnchietA Island.



Patterns of endemic extinctions among island bird species

Results indicate that the initial spasm of island bird extinctions due to human contact may have, in part, passed, and indicate that bird species on islands colonized earliest by humans may have had more time to adapt to the presence of man and his commensal species, resulting in reduced extinction rates.

Prehistoric Extinctions of Pacific Island Birds: Biodiversity Meets Zooarchaeology

On tropical Pacific islands, a human-caused "biodiversity crisis" began thousands of years ago and has nearly run its course and the current global extinction crisis therefore has historic precedent.

Naive birds and noble savages - a review of man-caused prehistoric extinctions of island birds

The prehistoric extinctions emphasize the extreme vulnerability and value of the very few pristine island faunas that still remain.

The Archaeological Record of Human Impacts on Animal Populations

The history of this famous argument suggests that it is better seen as a statement of faith about the past rather than as an appeal to reason, and burgeoning knowledge of past human impacts on animals has important implications for the conservation biology of the future.

Extinctions in near time : causes, contexts, and consequences

1 * Cretaceous Meteor Showers, the Human Ecological "Niche," and the Sixth Extinction.- 2 * Prehistoric Extinctions on Islands and Continents.- 3 * The Interaction of Humans, Megaherbivores, and

New Ages for the Last Australian Megafauna: Continent-Wide Extinction About 46,000 Years Ago

This work reports burial ages for megafauna from 28 sites and infer extinction across the continent around 46,400 years ago, ruling out extreme aridity at the Last Glacial Maximum as the cause of extinction, but not other climatic impacts; a "blitzkrieg" model of human-induced extinction; or an extended period of anthropogenic ecosystem disruption.

The Lost World of the Moa: Prehistoric Life of New Zealand

Preliminary Table of Contents - Introduction - The Land that Time Forgot The Early Record The Unveiling The Discovery of Moa Moa Anatomy and Evolution The Living Moa Kiwi Waterbirds of All Kinds The

Rapid extinction of the moas (Aves: Dinornithiformes): model, test, and implications.

A Leslie matrix population model supported by carbon-14 dating of early occupation layers lacking moa remains suggests that human hunting and habitat destruction drove the 11 species of moa to

The Theory of Island Biogeography

Preface to the Princeton Landmarks in Biology Edition vii Preface xi Symbols Used xiii 1. The Importance of Islands 3 2. Area and Number of Speicies 8 3. Further Explanations of the Area-Diversity