Avian Botulism

@inproceedings{2001AvianB,
  title={Avian Botulism},
  author={},
  year={2001}
}
  • Published 2001
Cause Avian botulism is a paralytic, often fatal, disease of birds that results when they ingest toxin produced by the bacterium, Clostridium botulinum. Seven distinct types of toxin designated by the letters A to G have been identified (Table 38.1). Waterfowl die-offs due to botulism are usually caused by type C toxin; sporadic die-offs among fish-eating birds, such as common loons and gulls, have been caused by type E toxin. Type A botulinum toxin has also caused disease in birds, most… Expand
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