Aversive and Appetitive Events Evoke the Release of Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone and Bombesin-Like Peptides at the Central Nucleus of the Amygdala

@article{Merali1998AversiveAA,
  title={Aversive and Appetitive Events Evoke the Release of Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone and Bombesin-Like Peptides at the Central Nucleus of the Amygdala},
  author={Zul Merali and Judy F. McIntosh and Pam Kent and David Michaud and Hymie Anisman},
  journal={The Journal of Neuroscience},
  year={1998},
  volume={18},
  pages={4758 - 4766}
}
There is wide agreement that corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) systems within the brain are activated by stressful stimuli. There is also mounting evidence for the role of bombesin (BN)-like peptides in the mediation of the stress response. To date, however, the extent to which other stimuli increase the activity of these peptidergic systems has received little attention. In the present investigation we validated and used in vivo microdialysis sampling followed by ex vivo radioimmunoassays… 

Figures from this paper

The role of neuropeptide Y in the amygdala on corticotropin-releasing factor receptor-mediated behavioral stress responses in the rat

Results showed that injections of NPY into the BLA prior to Ucn significantly blocked the development of the avoidance behavior in the two floor choice test and the decrease in SI time that is usually seen following restraint stress, providing further support that an interaction between NPY and CRF within theBLA may be critical for maintaining a normal homeostatic emotional state.

Central Bombesin Activates the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis

Results suggest that BN-like peptides may regulate certain hypothalamic and extrahypothalamic circuits, including the HPA axis, by affecting regional utilization of ir-CRH and ir-AVP, and/or by provoking the release of these peptides at the Me/Arc, thus increasing their availability downstream at the anterior pituitary and increasing circulating ACTH and corticosterone levels.

Effects of corticosterone on corticotrophin‐releasing hormone and gastrin‐releasing peptide release in response to an aversive stimulus in two regions of the forebrain (central nucleus of the amygdala and prefrontal cortex)

It is found that, at both regions, the airpuff‐induced CRH and GRP release were enhanced in the corticosterone pellet‐implanted rats as compared with the release observed in the vehicle‐ Implanted control rats.

Does amygdaloid corticotropin‐releasing hormone (CRH) mediate anxiety‐like behaviors? Dissociation of anxiogenic effects and CRH release

While neural circuits involving CRH and/or glutamatergic receptors at the CeA may be activated by an unfamiliar environment, the data challenge the view that activation of these receptors is necessary for the expression of anxiety‐like behavioral responses.
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 57 REFERENCES

Increase of extracellular corticotropin-releasing factor-like immunoreactivity levels in the amygdala of awake rats during restraint stress and ethanol withdrawal as measured by microdialysis

  • E. PichM. Lorang F. Weiss
  • Biology
    The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience
  • 1995
A progressive increase of CRF-IR levels over time was observed, reaching peak values at 10–12 hr after the onset of withdrawal, and this hypothesis was explored in a series of experiments using intracranial microdialysis to monitorCRF-like immunoreactivity in the extracellular compartment of the rat amygdala.

Regulation of ingestion by CRF and bombesin-like peptides: distinct meal-related peptide level changes.

Site-specific fluctuations of BN and CRF in relationship to the animal's feeding status are demonstrated for the first time and suggest that these peptides may play a role in the regulation of food intake.

Activation of corticotropin-releasing factor in the limbic system during cannabinoid withdrawal.

It is suggested that long-term cannabinoid administration alters CRF function in the limbic system of the brain, in a manner similar to that observed with other drugs of abuse, and also induces neuroadaptive processes that may result in future vulnerability to drug dependence.

Rapid alterations of hypothalamic and hippocampal bombesin-like peptide levels with feeding status.

The observed rapid alterations suggest that the hypothalamic response to food intake is satiety linked and hence lend support to the contention that BN-like peptides play a physiological role in the central regulation of ingestive behavior.

Blockade of brain bombesin/GRP receptors increases food intake in satiated rats.

It is reported that Leu14, a BN receptor antagonist, blocks the suppressive effect of centrally administered BN on food intake and that in satiated rats, this pseudopeptide enhances food intake; the effects were more potent and efficacious upon the fourth compared with the third ventricular administration.

Corticotropin-releasing factor and neuropeptide y: role in emotional integration

Short Stressor Induced Long‐Lasting Increases of Vasopressin Stores in Hypothalamic Corticotropin‐Releasing Hormone (CRH) Neurons in Adult Rats

It is concluded that long‐lasting increases of AVP stores in CRH terminals in the ZEME can be induced by various stressors and postulate that the amplitude of such increases depends on the degree of activation of the CRH neurons by the stressor.

The Role of Limbic and Hypothalamic Corticotropin‐Releasing Factor in Behavioral Responses to Stress

Consistent with the dual role of other hypothalamic-releasing factors in integrating hormonal and neural mechanisms by acting both as secretagogues for anterior pituitary hormones and as extrapituitary peptide neurotransmitters, CRF may coordinate coping responses to stress at several bodily levels.

Role of the Hippocampus, the Bed Nucleus of the Stria Terminalis, and the Amygdala in the Excitatory Effect of Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone on the Acoustic Startle Reflex

It is strongly suggested that CRH in the CSF can activate the BNST, which could lead to activation of brainstem and hypothalamic BN ST target areas involved in anxiety and stress responses.
...