Avalanche photodiodes and quenching circuits for single-photon detection.

@article{Cova1996AvalanchePA,
  title={Avalanche photodiodes and quenching circuits for single-photon detection.},
  author={Sergio Cova and Massimo Ghioni and Andrea Leonardo Lacaita and Carlo Samori and Franco Zappa},
  journal={Applied optics},
  year={1996},
  volume={35 12},
  pages={
          1956-76
        }
}
Avalanche photodiodes, which operate above the breakdown voltage in Geiger mode connected with avalanche-quenching circuits, can be used to detect single photons and are therefore called singlephoton avalanche diodes SPAD's. Circuit configurations suitable for this operation mode are critically analyzed and their relative merits in photon counting and timing applications are assessed. Simple passive-quenching circuits (PQC's), which are useful for SPAD device testing and selection, have fairly… 
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TLDR
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