Availability of urea to autotrophic ammonia-oxidizing bacteria as related to the fate of 14C- and 15N-labeled urea added to soil

  title={Availability of urea to autotrophic ammonia-oxidizing bacteria as related to the fate of 14C- and 15N-labeled urea added to soil},
  author={K. L. Marsh and Gerald K. Sims and Richard Lesley Mulvaney},
  journal={Biology and Fertility of Soils},
Nitrate has been found to accumulate more rapidly in soils fertilized with urea than with inorganic sources of NH4+, despite the fact that nitrification must be preceded by hydrolytic decomposition. For acidic conditions, this finding has been attributed to limited uptake of NH4+ by ammonium-oxidizing bacteria (also reported herein), suggesting an advantage for direct utilization of a nonionizable N substrate such as urea. If the same advantage applies to urea-C, nitrification of urea-N would… 
Comparison of urease inhibitor N-(n-butyl) thiophosphoric triamide and oxidized charcoal for conserving urea-N in soil
Charcoal-based amendments have a potential use in controlling NH3 volatilization from urea fertilization, owing to a high cation-exchange capacity (CEC) that enhances the retention of NH . An
Turnover of Urea in a Soil from the North China Plain as Affected by the Urease Inhibitor NBPT and Wheat Straw
In the North China Plain (NCP), urea is applied to predominantly high-pH soils and high gaseous losses of N are observed in the forms of ammonia (NH3) and nitrous oxide (N2O). The production of N2O
Comparative Proteomics of Three Species of Ammonia-Oxidizing Bacteria
The first published proteomes of N. ureae and N. multiformis are presented, and the first comparative proteomics study of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria is presented, which gives new insights into consistent metabolic features and differences between members of this environmentally and industrially important group.
Role for urea in nitrification by polar marine Archaea
The analysis of an environmental metagenome from the Arctic winter revealed that Thaumarchaeota had pathways for ammonia oxidation and, unexpectedly, an abundance of genes involved in urea transport and degradation, suggesting the existence of alternative sources of carbon and energy.
Single cell genomic and transcriptomic evidence for the use of alternative nitrogen substrates by anammox bacteria
Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) contributes substantially to ocean nitrogen loss, particularly in anoxic marine zones (AMZs). Ammonium is scarce in AMZs, raising the hypothesis that organic
Evaluation of oxidized charcoal and urease inhibitors for increasing the efficiency of urea-based fertilizers
Volatilization losses reduce the efficiency of surface-applied urea for crop N uptake, and can be controlled using urease inhibitors to retard hydrolysis or by the presence of other amendments that
Response of turfgrass to urea-based fertilizers formulated to reduce ammonia volatilization and nitrate conversion
Stabilized urea fertilizers are currently being marketed for use in turfgrass, as a more efficient alternative to standard urea that minimizes adverse impacts on the environment. These fertilizers


Autotrophic Ammonia Oxidation at Low pH through Urea Hydrolysis
Ureolysis provides a mechanism for nitrification in acid soils, but a proportion of the ammonia produced during this process diffuses from the cell and is not subsequently available for growth if the extracellular pH is less than 7.5.
Use of Diffusion for Enzymatic Determination of Urea-Nitrogen in Soil Extracts
Abstract Urea-N in soil extracts is normally determined by colorimetric procedures using diacetyl monoxime, due in part to the use of a urease (urea amidohydrolase, EC inhibitor to prevent
Autotrophic nitrification in bacteria.
  • J. Prosser
  • Biology
    Advances in microbial physiology
  • 1989
Nitrogen-Inorganic Forms
Most soils contain inorganic nitrogen (N) in the form of ammonium (NHt) and nitrate (NO)"). Nitrite (NOz) also may be present, but the amount is usually too small to warrant its determination, except
A technique to recover tracer as carboxyl-carbon and alpha-nitrogen from amino acids in soil hydrolysates.
A diffusion method recently developed to determine amino acid-N by ninhydrin oxidation of soil hydrolysates was modified to permit simultaneous collection of the CO2 liberated during this oxidation to detect assimilation of tracer C and N into microbial biomass.
Nitrification in acid soils: micro-organisms and mechanisms
Ureolytic nitrification at low pH by Nitrosospira spec.
The results indicate that in acid soils nitrification by ureolytic ammonium-oxidizing chemolithotrophs may not be restricted to microsites of neutral pH.
Diffusion methods to determine different forms of nitrogen in soil hydrolysates
Conventional steam-distillation techniques for fractionating the N in soil hydrolysates have generally indicated little variation in the chemical distribution of soil organic N, regardless of soil
Nitrogen fertilizers promote denitrification
Abstract A laboratory study was conducted to compare the effects of different N fertilizers on emission of N2 and N2O during denitrification of NO3– in waterlogged soil. Field-moist samples of