The Case for Live Attenuated Vaccines against the Neglected Zoonotic Diseases Brucellosis and Bovine Tuberculosis
Calves were vaccinated orally, subcutaneously or intraperitoneally with a smooth, plasmid-cured strain of Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium, strain 81. Oral vaccination was not effective, as only 1/5 calves survived challenge with virulent S. typhimurium. Strain 81 was attenuated for calves, as only a slight rise in rectal temperatures was detected after vaccination. The organism was excreted by some calves in the faeces, but no signs of diarrhoea were observed after vaccination. After parenteral vaccination, strain 81 was able to reach the intestines, gastric associated lymphoid tissues and other internal lymphoid tissues and remained viable for up to 14 days in the bovine host. After oral challenge with a virulent strain, 9/10 vaccinated calves survived challenge as opposed to 4/10 control calves (p<0.5). Diarrhoea was present in all calves of the control groups, but in only 4/10 of the vaccinated calves. The clinical reactions of the vaccinated calves were milder than in the control calves, as the rises in rectal temperatures were lower, diarrhoea was less severe, and the challenge strain was present in fewer organs from vaccinated calves than control calves. This study showed that parenterally administered Salmonella vaccines can induce both mucosal and systemic immunity, and it is postulated that this capability of strain 81 is related to its colonisation of lymphoid tissues and other systemic and intestinal tissues. This study confirmed that plasmid-cured strains were attenuated in the bovine host and conferred significant protection after parenteral vaccination, but not oral vaccination.