Autophagy is used as a survival program in unfertilized sea urchin eggs that are destined to die by apoptosis after inactivation of MAPK1/3 (ERK2/1).


A high MAPK1/3 (also known as ERK2/1, respectively) activity, preventing spontaneous activation, is essential to maintain cell cycle arrest of mature oocytes of mammals, frogs or invertebrates such as starfish. Mature oocytes would undergo a "suicide"-like cell death if not fertilized. We previously have reported that downregulation of MAPK1/3 in… (More)
DOI: 10.4161/auto.25712