Autonomous Cars: In Favor of a Mandatory Ethics Setting

@article{Gogoll2017AutonomousCI,
  title={Autonomous Cars: In Favor of a Mandatory Ethics Setting},
  author={Jan Gogoll and Julian F. M{\"u}ller},
  journal={Science and Engineering Ethics},
  year={2017},
  volume={23},
  pages={681-700}
}
The recent progress in the development of autonomous cars has seen ethical questions come to the forefront. In particular, life and death decisions regarding the behavior of self-driving cars in trolley dilemma situations are attracting widespread interest in the recent debate. In this essay we want to ask whether we should implement a mandatory ethics setting (MES) for the whole of society or, whether every driver should have the choice to select his own personal ethics setting (PES). While… 
Ethics of Self-driving Cars: A Naturalistic Approach
The potential development of self-driving cars (also known as autonomous vehicles or AVs – particularly Level 5 AVs) has called the attention of different interested parties. Yet, there are still
Self-driving Cars in Dilemmatic Situations: An Approach Based on the Theory of Justification in Criminal Law
Abstract This article puts forward solutions to some of the ethical and legal dilemmas posed in the current discussion on how to program crash algorithms in autonomous or self-driving cars. The first
Never Mind the Trolley: The Ethics of Autonomous Vehicles in Mundane Situations
Trolley cases are widely considered central to the ethics of autonomous vehicles. We caution against this by identifying four problems. (1) Trolley cases, given technical limitations, rest on
The Relativistic Car: Applying Metaethics to the Debate about Self-Driving Vehicles
  • T. Pölzler
  • Philosophy
    Ethical theory and moral practice : an international forum
  • 2021
TLDR
This work explains why and how the moral universalism/relativism debate is relevant to the issue of self-driving cars, and argues that there are good reasons to consider accident algorithms that assume relativism.
From driverless dilemmas to more practical commonsense tests for automated vehicles
TLDR
This work examines, at a high level, how to test the common sense of an AV, and explains how to substantially change the premises and features of these dilemmas in order to lay the foundations for a more practical and relevant framework that tests driving common sense as an integral part of road rules testing.
The Ethical Knob: ethically-customisable automated vehicles and the law
TLDR
This work assumes that AVs are equipped with what it is called an “Ethical Knob”, a device enabling passengers to ethically customise their AVs, namely, to choose between different settings corresponding to different moral approaches or principles.
Human Decisions in Moral Dilemmas are Largely Described by Utilitarianism: Virtual Car Driving Study Provides Guidelines for Autonomous Driving Vehicles
TLDR
It will be argued for an obligatory ethics setting implemented in ADVs after a set of experiments in which participants experienced modified trolley dilemmas as drivers in virtual reality environments showed that participants, in general, decided in a utilitarian manner.
Autonomous Driving Ethics: from Trolley Problem to Ethics of Risk
TLDR
A new framework for trajectory planning is proposed, with uncertainties and an assessment of risks, that considers minimization of the overall risk, priority for the worst-off and equal treatment of people.
The German Act on Autonomous Driving: Why Ethics Still Matters
The German Act on Autonomous Driving constitutes the first national framework on level four autonomous vehicles and has received attention from policy makers, AI ethics scholars and legal experts in
The Ethics of Accident-Algorithms for Self-Driving Cars: an Applied Trolley Problem?
TLDR
Three important ways are identified in which the ethics of accident-algorithms for self-driving cars and the philosophy of the trolley problem differ from each other, which concern the basic decision-making situation faced by those who decide how self- Driving cars should be programmed to deal with accidents.
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 23 REFERENCES
Autonomous Vehicles Need Experimental Ethics: Are We Ready for Utilitarian Cars?
TLDR
To achieve these objectives, manufacturers and regulators will need psychologists to apply the methods of experimental ethics to situations involving AVs and unavoidable harm, and it is argued that laypersons are relatively comfortable with utilitarian AVs, programmed to minimize the death toll in case of unavoidable harm.
Responsibility for Crashes of Autonomous Vehicles: An Ethical Analysis
TLDR
The first question discussed is whether the tort liability for car manufacturers should be designed in a way that will help along the development and improvement of autonomous vehicles and whether it would be morally permissible to impose liability on the user based on a duty to pay attention to the road and traffic and to intervene when necessary to avoid accidents.
Investigation into the Role of Rational Ethics in Crashes of Automated Vehicles
Traffic engineers, vehicle manufacturers, technology groups, and government agencies are anticipating and preparing for the emergence of fully automated vehicles into the American transportation
Proxy Prudence: Rethinking Models of Responsibility for Semi­‐Autonomous Robots
As robots become more autonomous — capable of acting in complex ways, independent of direct human interaction — their actions will challenge traditional notions of responsibility. How, for example,
Prospects for a Kantian Machine
TLDR
This work explores a version of machine ethics along the lines of Kantian formalist ethics, both to suggest what computational structures such a view would require and to see what challenges remain for its successful implementation.
Moral judgments about altruistic self-sacrifice: When philosophical and folk intuitions clash
Altruistic self-sacrifice is rare, supererogatory, and not to be expected of any rational agent; but, the possibility of giving up one's life for the common good has played an important role in moral
Engineering Social Justice into Traffic Control for Self-Driving Vehicles?
TLDR
A case is made for the importance of addressing questions of social justice in this transformation of traffic control technology, and a preliminary framework for doing so is sketched, with a central focus on efficiency and equal access as desiderata for traffic control design.
The Reason of Rules: Constitutional Political Economy
In his foreword, Robert D Tollison identifies the main objective of Geoffrey Brennan and James M Buchanan's THE REASON OF RULES: "...a book-length attempt to focus the energies of economists and
Understanding Institutional Diversity
Elinor Ostronr s Understanding Institutional Diversity draws an analogy between genetic rules of biological organisms and social rules of communities of humans. Just as natural scientists accumulated
The Trolley Problem
Some years ago, Philippa Foot drew attention to an extraordinarily interesting problem." Suppose you are the driver of a trolley. The trolley rounds a bend, and there come into view ahead five track
...
...