Autonomic nervous system activity distinguishes among emotions.

  title={Autonomic nervous system activity distinguishes among emotions.},
  author={Paul Ekman and Robert W Levenson and W V Friesen},
  volume={221 4616},
Emotion-specific activity in the autonomic nervous system was generated by constructing facial prototypes of emotion muscle by muscle and by reliving past emotional experiences. The autonomic activity produced distinguished not only between positive and negative emotions, but also among negative emotions. This finding challenges emotion theories that have proposed autonomic activity to be undifferentiated or that have failed to address the implications of autonomic differentiation in emotion. 
Autonomic nervous system activity in emotion: A review
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Following decades of controversy and uncertainty, there is now sufficient empirical basis for asserting the existence of a limited set of autonomic differences among emotions. Findings of autonomic
Emotion, Somatovisceral Afference, and Autonomic Regulation
The precise relationship between the autonomic nervous system and emotion has been a topic of intense debate and research throughout the history of modern psychology. The present article considers
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This chapter reports on the current state of the art related to the study of autonomic nervous system (ANS) dynamics for mood and emotional-state assessment. Accordingly, several methodological
The Autonomic Architecture of Emotion
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Multivariate Discrimination of Emotion-Specific Autonomic Nervous System Activity
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The autonomic and behavioral profile of emotional dysregulation
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Voluntary facial action generates emotion-specific autonomic nervous system activity.
Results indicated that voluntary facial activity produced significant levels of subjective experience of the associated emotion, and that autonomic distinctions among emotions were found both between negative and positive emotions and among negative emotions.


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The problem of which cues, internal or external, permit a person to label and identify his own emotional state has been with us since the days that James (1890) first tendered his doctrine that "the
The Direction of Anger During a Laboratory Stress‐Inducing Situation
Wolff and his co-workers observed that in patients different physiological reaction patterns occurred in various organs with differences in emotional reactions, at variance with Cannon's theory that the anger and fear of the "fight-flight" reaction were inseparable.
Cardiovascular Responding during Anger and Fear Imagery
Analysis of change in heart rate and systolic blood pressure showed significant effects for intensity only, which provides further support for the concept of physiological differentiation in human emotion.
The Physiological Differentiation between Fear and Anger in Humans
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  • Biology
    Psychosomatic medicine
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The patterns obtained for anger and fear argue against the Arnold proposal that anger is a strong reaction of both the sympathetic and parasympathetic branches of the autonomic nervous systems, whereas fear is but a sympathetic reaction.
Voluntary Control of Human Cardiovascular Integration and Differentiation through Feedback and Reward
Human subjects can learn to control the relation between their systolic blood pressure and heart rate when they are given feedback and reward for the desired pattern of blood pressure and heart rate.
Assessing differential autonomic patterns in emotions.
Tomkins for their comments on this report; the John D. and Catherine T. Mac- Arthur Foundation for research funding; and L. Tcmoshok, J. Kamiya, and L. Zegans for the use of equipment
  • Tomkins for their comments on this report; the John D. and Catherine T. Mac- Arthur Foundation for research funding; and L. Tcmoshok, J. Kamiya, and L. Zegans for the use of equipment