Autonomic cardiovascular control during submergence and emergence in bullfrogs.


Unanesthetized bullfrogs were involuntarily submerged for 25 min in air-saturated water at 21 degrees C. Significant bradycardia was observed while systemic blood pressure was maintained or slightly elevated. Upon emergence, heart rates immediately returned to presubmergence levels or higher. Similar responses were observed in frogs allowed to make… (More)