# Automating Hint Generation with Solution Space Path Construction

@inproceedings{Rivers2014AutomatingHG, title={Automating Hint Generation with Solution Space Path Construction}, author={Kelly Rivers and K. Koedinger}, booktitle={Intelligent Tutoring Systems}, year={2014} }

Developing intelligent tutoring systems from student solution data is a promising approach to facilitating more widespread application of tutors. In principle, tutor feedback can be generated by matching student solution attempts to stored intermediate solution states, and next-step hints can be generated by finding a path from a student's current state to a correct solution state. However, exact matching of states and paths does not work for many domains, like programming, where the number of…

## 58 Citations

The Continuous Hint Factory - Providing Hints in Vast and Sparsely Populated Edit Distance Spaces

- Computer ScienceArXiv
- 2017

This contribution provides a mathematical framework for edit-based hint policies and proposes a novel hint policy to provide edit hints in vast and sparsely populated state spaces and demonstrates that the Continuous Hint Factory can predict more accurately what capable students would do compared to existing prediction schemes on two learning tasks.

Autonomously Generating Hints by Inferring Problem Solving Policies

- Computer ScienceL@S
- 2015

This paper autonomously generate hints for the Code.org `Hour of Code,' (which is to the best of the authors' knowledge the largest online course to date) using historical student data, and discovers that this statistic is highly predictive of a student's future success.

Data-Driven Hint Generation in Vast Solution Spaces: a Self-Improving Python Programming Tutor

- Computer ScienceInternational Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education
- 2015

The results show that ITAP is capable of producing hints for almost any given state after being given only a single reference solution, and that it can improve its performance by collecting data over time.

Using the Hint Factory to Compare Model-Based Tutoring Systems

- Computer ScienceEDM
- 2015

It is argued that the state-space analysis can be used to better understand students’ problem-solving strategies and can beused to highlight the impact of different design decisions.

A Survey of Automated Programming Hint Generation: The HINTS Framework

- Computer ScienceACM Comput. Surv.
- 2022

All hint techniques can be understood as a series of simpler components with similar properties, and a simple framework for describing such techniques is presented, the Hint Iteration by Narrow-down and Transformation Steps (HINTS) framework.

High-Coverage Hint Generation for Massive Courses: Do Automated Hints Help CS1 Students?

- Computer ScienceITiCSE
- 2017

A robust hint generation system that extends the coverage of the mutation-based approach using two complementary techniques and shows that hints contributed to students' progress while still encouraging the students to solve problems by themselves.

Authoring Tutors with Complex Solutions: A Comparative Analysis of Example Tracing and SimStudent

- Computer ScienceAIED Workshops
- 2015

A framework for understanding solution space complexity is presented and the abilities of Example Tracing and SimStudent for authoring problems in an experimental design tutor are analyzed, finding that both non-programming approaches support authoring of this complex problem.

Current State and Next Steps on Automated Hints for Students Learning to Code

- Computer Science2020 IEEE Frontiers in Education Conference (FIE)
- 2020

A design science approach is taken to define an ATS based on APR that attempts to address the identified challenges and suggests a three-step roadmap.

High Coverage Hint Generation for Massive Courses by Sumukh Sridhara Research Project

- Computer Science
- 2017

A robust hint generation system that extends the coverage of the mutation-based approach using two complementary techniques and shows that hints contributed to students’ progress while still encouraging the students to solve problems by themselves is described.

Ask-Elle: an Adaptable Programming Tutor for Haskell Giving Automated Feedback

- Computer ScienceInternational Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education
- 2015

The design of a tutor that combines the incremental development of different solutions in various forms to a programming exercise with automated feedback and teacher-specified programming exercises, solutions, and properties is designed.

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