Automatic control: the vertebral column of dogfish sharks behaves as a continuously variable transmission with smoothly shifting functions.

@article{Porter2016AutomaticCT,
  title={Automatic control: the vertebral column of dogfish sharks behaves as a continuously variable transmission with smoothly shifting functions.},
  author={Marianne E. Porter and Randy H Ewoldt and John H. Long},
  journal={The Journal of experimental biology},
  year={2016},
  volume={219 Pt 18},
  pages={
          2908-2919
        }
}
During swimming in dogfish sharks, Squalus acanthias, both the intervertebral joints and the vertebral centra undergo significant strain. To investigate this system, unique among vertebrates, we cyclically bent isolated segments of 10 vertebrae and nine joints. For the first time in the biomechanics of fish vertebral columns, we simultaneously characterized non-linear elasticity and viscosity throughout the bending oscillation, extending recently proposed techniques for large-amplitude… CONTINUE READING
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