OBJECTIVE To evaluate safety and efficacy of autologous peripheral blood hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (auto-PBHSCT) with IBu precondition regimen consisting of high-dose idarubicin (IDA) and busulphan (Bu) for treatment of patients with low and intermediate risk acute myeloid leuekmia (AML). METHODS A total of 11 patients with AML (5 low and 6 intermediate risk patients) treated with auto-PBHSCT with IBu precondition regimen (IDA 20 mg/m2, continuous i.v. from d-13 to d-11, Bu 0.8 mg/kg/q6h i.v. for 2h, from d-5 to d-2) from March 2011 to July 2014 were analyzed retrospectively. Adverse effects and transplantation-related mortality (TRM) were evaluated. Kaplan-Meier analysis was performed to calculate the overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS) and cumulative relapse rate (RR). Cox regression was performed for univariate analysis for DFS. RESULTS Among the 11 patients, 10 patients obtained hematopoietic reconstitution, 1 patient died during transplantation, thus the TRM was 9.1%. The adverse effects were well tolerated. With median follow-up of 31.6 (8.7-52.5) months, 7 patients (63.3%) were alive, including 6 patients (54.5%) in continuous complete remission (CR). Median OS and DFS were not reached. The 3-year OS, DFS and RR were (57.7±16.3)%, (52.5±17.6)% and 47.5%, respectively. Univartiate analysis indicated that the age, sex, interval between diagnosis and transplantation, white blood cell count at diagnosis, risk-grouping (low or intermediate risk), disease status before transplantation (CR1 or CR2), and count of mononuclear cells for infusion all can not influence DFS(P>0.05, respectively). CONCLUSION The treatment of auto-PBHSCT with IBu precondition regimen for low to intermediate risk AML patients is safe and effective.