Autoimmunity versus horror autotoxicus: The struggle for recognition

  title={Autoimmunity versus horror autotoxicus: The struggle for recognition},
  author={A. M. Silverstein},
  journal={Nature Immunology},
Historical insight: Paul Ehrlich's dictum of horror autotoxicus and the changing orientation of the field inhibited acceptance of the reality of autoimmune disease. 

Whatever happened to cell-bound antibodies? On the overriding influence of dogma

For over 75 years, only humoral antibodies were known to mediate immunological specificity. The apparent absence of these in delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions was perplexing, and the dominant

Heavy-chain receptor editing unbound

  • G. Kelsoe
  • Biology
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
  • 2015
With all of the certainty of death and taxes, questions regarding the mechanisms of immunological tolerance remain fixtures across the landscape of immunology. From Paul Ehlirch’s “horror

Connecting the dots in type 1 diabetes: The role for gut–pancreas axis

Discussion on changes in gut microbiota driving the breakdown of mucosal barrier in NOD mice; the resulting inflammation and impairment of oral tolerance induces the autoimmune diabetes.

Not-So-Negative Selection.

Characterization of peripheral and lesional single B cell autoreactivity in patients with Sjögren’s syndrome and rheumatoid arthritis

The development of antibody-producing B cells and B cell self-tolerance in humans and the role of CD inhibition in this process are described.

Do autoantigens define autoimmunity or vice versa?

  • R. Eisenberg
  • Biology, Medicine
    European journal of immunology
  • 2005
The overall paradigm of autoimmunity is discussed, and it is likely that multiple different pathways are critical in various diseases, and even in a single condition.

The Recent History of Tumour Necrosis Factor (TNF)

The participants provide insights into how TNF has become a focal point for the study of inflammatory and malignant diseases, and discuss the obstacles and the opportunities that arose during the development of anti-TNF drugs.

RAGs and regulation of autoantibodies.

The prevalence of autoantibodies in the initial antibody repertoire, their regulation by receptor editing, and the role of the recombinase proteins (RAG1 and RAG2) in this process are reviewed.

Chimeric Antigen Receptor Therapy.

This review addresses T-cell engineering and synthetic immunity, with a focus on producing durable remissions in patients with treatment-refractory tumors, aboutimeric Antigen Receptor T Cells.

The anti-DNA antibody: origin and impact, dogmas and controversies

  • O. Rekvig
  • Medicine, Biology
    Nature Reviews Rheumatology
  • 2015
The inclusion of 'the anti-DNA antibody' by the ACR and the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics as a criterion for systemic lupus erythematosus does not convey the diverse origins of these antibodies, the specificities exerted by these antibodies or their clinical impact—or lack thereof.



The most elegant immunological experiment of the XIX century

Early experiments by Ehrlich, as recounted here by Arthur Silverstein, clarified some crucial issues and paved the way for studies that are still ongoing today.

The structural basis of antibody specificity

Immunologic methods for steroid determination depend on the ability of antibodies directed against a steroid determinant group to react preferentially with that particular steroid. The specificity of

Clemens Freiherr von Pirquet: Explaining immune complex disease in 1906

Pierre Pirquet, an exceedingly curious pediatrician with acute powers of observation and deduction, not only solved the riddle of serum sickness and developed the concept of allergy, but also made contributions to the study of nutrition and aging.


  • H. Zinsser
  • Biology
    The Journal of experimental medicine
  • 1921
There seem to develop two definite forms of hypersensitiveness in guinea pigs infected with bacteria, typical anaphylaxis in which the protein material of the bacterial cells is concerned, which develops late and which can be induced by repeated injections of dead bacterial material, and a hypersens competitiveness to non-protein constituents which differs from the former.

The Specificity of Serological Reactions

This little book brings within the reach of workers in immunology almost a fabulous wealth of references in an exceptionally small compass. The references are indicated, generally, serially by small

The Collected Papers of Paul Ehrlich

  • J. Fruton
  • History
    The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
  • 1957


No evidence was found to support the idea that vaccine virus placed in the cisterna magna is capable of producing an acute disseminated encephalomyelitis with perivascular demyelination either in

Studies on organ specificity. IV. Production of rabbit thyroid antibodies in the rabbit.

The thyroid antibodies are tissue-specific rather than group-specific, reacting with the thyroid extracts of any rabbit tested regardless of whether the rabbit itself produced thyroid antibodies or failed to do so.

Genesis and development of a scientific fact

Originally published in German in 1935, this monograph anticipated solutions to problems of scientific progress, the truth of scientific fact and the role of error in science now associated with the