Protein Tyrosine Nitration and Thiol Oxidation by Peroxynitrite—Strategies to Prevent These Oxidative Modifications
Peroxynitrite (PN) gains high selectivity as a physiological oxidizing and nitrating agent through catalysis by metal ions. This was established for the heme-thiolate (P450) enzyme prostacyclin synthase which was tyrosine nitrated and inhibited at low PN levels [FEBS Lett. 382 (1996) 101]. Other P450 proteins reacted in a similar manner and a ferryl species (Compound II) has been identified as an intermediate during reactions with PN [Nitric Oxide 3 (1999) 142]. Here we investigated cytochrome P450CAM and found that it catalyzes the decomposition of PN as well as an increased nitration of phenol. The latter at the expense of phenol hydroxylation is characteristic for the proton-assisted PN action. PN also caused self-nitration of P450CAM at several tyrosine residues. Two of them, Y96 and Y305 were largely protected in the presence of the ligand metyrapone. Unlike other heme-thiolate proteins P450CAM did not form distinct spectral intermediates characteristic for Compound II. We conclude that P450CAM serves as a model for the nitration of prostacyclin synthase with respect to its autocatalytic tyrosine nitration and its prevention by blocking the active site.