Autism spectrum disorders: clinical and research frontiers

  title={Autism spectrum disorders: clinical and research frontiers},
  author={Elizabeth B. Caronna and Jeff Mark Milunsky and Helen B. Tager-Flusberg},
  journal={Archives of Disease in Childhood},
  pages={518 - 523}
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are common neurodevelopmental disorders that occur along a broad continuum of severity with impairments in social interactions, communication and behaviour. This review highlights recent advances in autism research that shed light on the causes of the disorder and that have implications for clinical practice. It focuses on (1) the rising prevalence of ASD with attention given to recent epidemiological studies, (2) important genetic discoveries that may affect… 

Early assessment and diagnosis of children

This chapter will review the evidence for ASD, the epidemiology and prevalence of these disorders and consider (using the framework of the National Autism Plan for Children) a range of assessment and diagnostic procedures including the use of the best estimate clinical diagnosis for clinical and research practice.

Autism spectrum disorder and pet therapy.

Pet therapy for ASD has shown positive effects, including high satisfaction rates among the participants' families, and major limitations of studies in the current literature include the lack of control groups and small sample sizes.

Genetic testing for autism spectrum disorders.

  • S. BauerM. Msall
  • Psychology, Medicine
    Developmental disabilities research reviews
  • 2011
Current trends in genetic testing for ASD, potential genetic etiologies of ASD, known genetic disorders associated with ASD, and recommendations for genetic testing in ASD are described.

Autism spectrum disorders, SIGN

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  • Medicine, Psychology
    Archives of Disease in Childhood - Education and Practice
  • 2008
The Scottish Intercollegiate Guideline Network published a clinical guideline in July 2007 covering the assessment, diagnosis and clinical interventions for these conditions, and the importance of providing information and support is stressed.

Autism: an emerging ‘neuroimmune disorder’ in search of therapy

Recent publications on ASDs pathogenesis and treatment with emphasis on neuroimmune processes and new therapeutic approaches are reviewed, finding increased oxidative stress and immune dysregulation are present in ASDs.

Autism Spectrum Disorder-A Paediatric Dentist’s Perspective

The diagnosis, etiology, and clinical aspects of ASD that are pertinent to dental professionals who treat these patients are discussed.

Autism Spectrum Disorder-A Paediatric Dentist’s Perspective

The diagnosis, etiology, and clinical aspects of ASD that are pertinent to dental professionals who treat these patients are discussed.

[Mental health disorders in the first years of life: autism spectrum disorders, constitutional and residual-organic abnormalities].

The analysis of current publications in the field of early constitutional and residual-organic abnormalities showed the congruence between them and 'regulation disorders of sensory processing', described in DC:0-3R.

Infants and Toddlers With Autism Spectrum Disorder: Early Identification and Early Intervention

The authors discuss early warning signs of the disorder and available screening and diagnostic tools, as well as issues affecting the delivery of effective early intervention services to children and families.

Cellular-mediated and humoral immunity in children with autism

Increasing evidence of autoimmune phenomena in individuals with autism could represent the presence of altered or inappropriate immune responses in this disorder.



Autism spectrum disorders

The objectives of this article are to provide physicians with relevant information needed to identify and refer children presenting with symptoms suggestive of ASDs to specialized centers early, and to make them feel comfortable in dealing with public concerns regarding controversial issues about the etiology and management of these disorders.

The epidemiology of autism spectrum disorders.

Future epidemiologic research should focus on expanding population-based descriptive data on ASDs, exploring candidate risk factors in large well-designed studies incorporating both genetic and environmental exposure data and addressing possible etiologic heterogeneity in studies that can stratify case groups and consider alternate endophenotypes.

Studying the Emergence of Autism Spectrum Disorders in High-risk Infants: Methodological and Practical Issues

This paper outlines several of these challenges, including those related to sampling, measurement and clinical implications, and suggests possible design and implementation strategies to address these various challenges, based on current research efforts in the field and previous studies involving high-risk populations.

Practice parameter: Screening and diagnosis of autism

This approach requires a dual process: 1) routine developmental surveillance and screening specifically for autism to be performed on all children to first identify those atrisk for any type of atypical development, and to identify those specifically at risk for autism.

How to diagnose autism

Current clinical and research findings in relation to early diagnosis of autism are outlined and the role of the paediatrician is considered, which is also made to the National Autism Plan for Children.

Social and communication development in toddlers with early and later diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders.

Examination of growth trajectories suggests that autism may involve developmental arrest, slowing, or even regression, and provides insight into different patterns of development of children with early vs later diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders.

Identification and Evaluation of Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders

This report addresses background information, including definition, history, epidemiology, diagnostic criteria, early signs, neuropathologic aspects, and etiologic possibilities in autism spectrum disorders, and provides an algorithm to help the pediatrician develop a strategy for early identification of children with autism Spectrum disorders.

Genetics evaluation for the etiologic diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders

A strategy of a tiered evaluation of the etiology of autism is discussed and recommendations use evidence-based conclusions from the current available literature and cumulative clinical experience.

Head Circumference as an Early Predictor of Autism Symptoms in Younger Siblings of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

Results showed that infants who had larger HC at 12 months, and whose HC growth rate decelerated more rapidly between 12 and 24 months were more likely to exhibit autism symptoms than infants with more typical HC trajectories.

Practitioner review: Diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder in 2- and 3-year-old children.

  • T. CharmanG. Baird
  • Medicine, Psychology
    Journal of child psychology and psychiatry, and allied disciplines
  • 2002
Earlier diagnosis and rising recognition of ASD have significant implications for primary healthcare and specialist diagnostic and therapeutic services.