Autism spectrum disorder in the second year: stability and change in syndrome expression.

  title={Autism spectrum disorder in the second year: stability and change in syndrome expression.},
  author={Katarzyna Chawarska and Ami Klin and Rhea Paul and Fred R. Volkmar},
  journal={Journal of child psychology and psychiatry, and allied disciplines},
  volume={48 2},
  • K. ChawarskaA. Klin F. Volkmar
  • Published 1 February 2007
  • Medicine, Psychology
  • Journal of child psychology and psychiatry, and allied disciplines
OBJECTIVES Increasing numbers of young children referred for a differential diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) necessitates better understanding of the early syndrome expression and the utility of the existing state-of-the art diagnostic methods in this population. METHOD Out of 31 infants under the age of 2 years referred for a differential diagnosis, 19 were diagnosed with autism, and 9 with pervasive developmental disorder - not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS) when reassessed at 3… 

Figures and Tables from this paper

Diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders in the first 3 years of life

  • R. Landa
  • Psychology, Medicine
    Nature Clinical Practice Neurology
  • 2008
Early detection of—and intervention to treat—ASD is crucial because it is likely to lead to an improved outcome, and early diagnosis will lead to earlier behavior-based intervention, which is associated with improvements in core areas, such as social functioning and communication.

Early diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder: stability and change in clinical diagnosis and symptom presentation.

Stability was documented for children diagnosed at 19 months on average, although a minority of children initially showed unclear diagnostic presentations, and findings highlight utility of the ADOS-T in making early diagnoses and predicting follow-up diagnoses.


The rationale for defining a new disorder, Early Atypical Autism Spectrum Disorder (EA-ASD) to accompany ASD in the new revision of the ZERO to THREE Diagnostic Classification of Mental Health and Developmental Disorders of Infancy and Early Childhood (DC:0-5) (in press) alternative diagnostic classification manual is outlined.

Early assessment and diagnosis of children

This chapter will review the evidence for ASD, the epidemiology and prevalence of these disorders and consider (using the framework of the National Autism Plan for Children) a range of assessment and diagnostic procedures including the use of the best estimate clinical diagnosis for clinical and research practice.

Overall prognosis of preschool autism spectrum disorder diagnoses.

The majority (95% confidence interval 89% to 95%) of participants continued to meet diagnostic criteria for autism spectrum disorder from baseline to follow-up one or more years later; however, the quality of the evidence was judged as low due to study limitations and inconsistency.

Early markers of autism spectrum disorders in infants and toddlers prospectively identified in the Social Attention and Communication Study

The recurring key markers of both autistic disorder and autism spectrum disorder were deficits in eye contact and pointing, and from 18 months, deficits in showing became an important marker and were found to be the best group of predictors for a best estimate diagnostic classification of autistic disorder/autism spectrum disorder at 24 months.

Early Identification and Interventions for Autism Spectrum Disorder: Executive Summary

A review of the current state of the science on early identification, screening, and intervention of ASD was warranted because of advances in genetic, neuroimaging, and other neurobiological research.

Clinical Assessment and Management of Toddlers With Suspected Autism Spectrum Disorder: Insights From Studies of High-Risk Infants

A comprehensive review of findings from recent studies on the early development of children with autism spectrum disorders is provided, summarizing current knowledge on early signs of autism Spectrum disorders, the screening properties of early detection tools, and current best practice for diagnostic assessment before 2 years of age.

Diagnostic tests for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in preschool children.

This Review evaluated diagnostic tests in terms of sensitivity and specificity to determine whether any diagnostic test has greater diagnostic test accuracy for age-specific subgroups within the preschool age range.

A prospective study of toddlers with ASD: short-term diagnostic and cognitive outcomes.

Stability of ASD diagnosis in toddlers is high, though marked changes in severity of symptoms is to be expected in a minority of cases and particular relevance of the assessment of verbal and nonverbal communication skills to diagnostic differentiation between subtypes within ASD in the second year of life is suggested.



Practitioner review: Diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder in 2- and 3-year-old children.

  • T. CharmanG. Baird
  • Medicine, Psychology
    Journal of child psychology and psychiatry, and allied disciplines
  • 2002
Earlier diagnosis and rising recognition of ASD have significant implications for primary healthcare and specialist diagnostic and therapeutic services.

Specifying PDD-NOS: a comparison of PDD-NOS, Asperger syndrome, and autism.

With some revision to current diagnostic criteria, a more homogenous atypical group with significant impairments in social-communication but fewer repetitive behaviors can be differentiated from the more nonspecific PDD-NOS group.

The Very Early Identification of Autism: Outcome to Age 41/2–5

  • L. EavesH. Ho
  • Psychology, Medicine
    Journal of autism and developmental disorders
  • 2004
Higher functioning children with milder autism were the most improved and changes were not related to amount or type of intervention but were related to the children's characteristics.

Field trial for autistic disorder in DSM-IV.

Modifications in the ICD-10 definition of autism were made based on data obtained regarding 977 patients with the following clinician-assigned diagnoses: autism, other pervasive developmental disorders, and other disorders.

Regression and word loss in autistic spectrum disorders.

Results indicated that the acquisition of a small number of spontaneous words used meaningfully and consistently followed by loss of all words, often associated with other social changes, was unique to children diagnosed at 5 years with ASD.

Using the ADI-R to diagnose autism in preschool children

The use of an investigator-based interview in the diagnosis of 51 autistic and 43 nonautistic mentally handicapped preschool children of equivalent mental and chronological age is described, and significant differences occurred between the groups on every diagnostic subdomain from the DSM-IV/ICD-10 draft criteria.

Early recognition of autism. Parental reports vs clinical observation.

Improved awareness of the early signs of autism should help physicians recognize this disorder in a timely manner and how observation of play and parental reports might be incorporated efficiently into a physician's repertoire of developmental and behavioral screening tools is suggested.

Pervasive developmental disorders in preschool children.

The authors' results suggest that rates of PDD are higher than previously reported, and attention is nevertheless drawn to the important needs of a substantial minority of preschool children.

Joint attention, developmental level, and symptom presentation in autism

Abstract Recent data suggest that a disturbance in the development of joint attention skills is a specific characteristic of young autistic children. This observation may have both theoretical and