Autism and psychosis as diametrical disorders of embodiment

@article{Crespi2019AutismAP,
  title={Autism and psychosis as diametrical disorders of embodiment},
  author={Bernard J. Crespi and Natalie L. Dinsdale},
  journal={Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health},
  year={2019},
  volume={2019},
  pages={121 - 138}
}
Abstract Humans have evolved an elaborate system of self-consciousness, self-identity, self-agency, and self-embodiment that is grounded in specific neurological structures including an expanded insula. Instantiation of the bodily self has been most-extensively studied via the ‘rubber hand illusion’, whereby parallel stimulation of a hidden true hand, and a viewed false hand, leads to the felt belief that the false hand is one’s own. Autism and schizophrenia have both long been regarded as… 

Figures from this paper

Deficits in Sense of Body Ownership, Sensory Processing, and Temporal Perception in Schizophrenia Patients With/Without Auditory Verbal Hallucinations

TLDR
An important finding was that patients with AVHs did not show a reduction in RHI under asynchronous conditions, which emphasize the disturbances of the sense of body ownership in schizophrenia patients with/without AVHS and the associations with AVhs.

Visual-Tactile Spatial Multisensory Interaction in Adults With Autism and Schizophrenia

TLDR
It is suggested that spatially static visual-tactile facilitation is intact in adults with ASD and SZ, and body boundary perception is related to social-emotional function, but not in a way that maps on to clinical status.

Autistic-Like Traits and Positive Schizotypy as Diametric Specializations of the Predictive Mind.

  • Brett P. Andersen
  • Psychology
    Perspectives on psychological science : a journal of the Association for Psychological Science
  • 2022
According to the predictive-processing framework, only prediction errors (rather than all sensory inputs) are processed by an organism's perceptual system. Prediction errors can be weighted such that

Is Alexithymia the Link Between Anorexia and Autism Spectrum Disorders?

TLDR
Current knowledge on the potential role of alexithymia in linking ASD and Anorexia Nervosa is summarized, with several limitations in the reviewed studies, which shared a cross-sectional design.

Bodies in the Novel Infinite Jest

TLDR
It is argued that the use of scientifically inspired pathologized bodies is a means of conveying the stance of Wallace on or criticism of the degradation of society through excessive entertainment.

How selves differ within and across cognitive domains: self-prioritisation, self-concept, and psychiatric traits

Background How we build and maintain representations of ourselves involves both explicit features which are consciously accessible on reflection and implicit processes which are not, such as

Bottom-up vs. top-down connectivity imbalance in individuals with high-autistic traits: An electroencephalographic study

TLDR
The observed brain connectivity differences suggest that, in individual with higher autistic traits, bottom-up signaling overcomes top-down channeled flow, and this imbalance may contribute to some behavioral alterations observed in ASD.

The Atypical Effective Connectivity of Right Temporoparietal Junction in Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Multi-Site Study

TLDR
Results demonstrated abnormal causal connectivity between the RTPJ and the widely distributed brain regions and that the connectivity has been associated with social impairment in individuals with ASD.

The Right Temporoparietal Junction Is Causally Associated with Embodied Perspective-taking

TLDR
High-definition transcranial direct current stimulation is used to provide causal evidence that the right temporoparietal junction is involved specifically in the embodied component of perspective-taking and provide support for theories postulating that the rTPJ is causally involved in embodied cognitive processing relevant to social functioning.

Evolutionary and genetic insights for clinical psychology.

  • B. Crespi
  • Psychology
    Clinical psychology review
  • 2020

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 210 REFERENCES

Altered bodily self-consciousness and peripersonal space in autism

TLDR
The results suggest that bodily self-consciousness is altered in participants with autism spectrum disorders due to differences in multisensory integration, and this may be linked to deficits in social functioning.

Embodiment and Schizophrenia: A Review of Implications and Applications.

TLDR
The embodiment perspective suggests novel treatment strategies through psychotherapy and body-oriented interventions, and may ultimately provide biomarkers for diagnosis of schizophrenia.

The spatial self in schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorder

Rethinking Body Ownership in Schizophrenia: Experimental and Meta-analytical Approaches Show no Evidence for Deficits

TLDR
While schizophrenia patients may be impaired in the sense of agency, their multisensory bodily self-representation, as tested here, seems to be unaffected by the illness.

Psychosis-proneness and the rubber hand illusion of body ownership

Schizophrenia, consciousness, and the self.

TLDR
This article proposes a unifying account emphasizing basic abnormalities of consciousness that underlie and also antecede a disparate assortment of signs and symptoms of schizophrenic symptoms, and introduces the phenomenological approach along with a theoretical account of normal consciousness and self-awareness.

Schizophrenia as a self-disorder due to perceptual incoherence

Schizophrenia and alterations in self-experience: a comparison of 6 perspectives.

TLDR
There is a wide-ranging, if general consensus, which suggests that many suffering from schizophrenia experience themselves as diminished relative to their former selves, ie, after onset they experience himself as less able to engage the world effectively, which intensifies their anxieties in the face of everyday interactions.

Schizophrenia as a disorder of embodied self.

TLDR
Experimental data and patients' reports show that key factor may be selfexperience disturbed on a basic, pre-reflective level, which can then lead to many higher-order symptoms of schizophrenia, and Predictive coding approach is introduced - the theory which complements previous accounts and links various cognitive functions by means of single common predictive mechanism.
...